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Table Of Contents

2.0 PROBLEM DESCRIPTION
2.1METALS AT CONTAMINATED SITES
2.2SOURCES OF CONTAMINANTS
2.2.1Airborne Sources
2.2.2Process Solid Wastes
2.2.3Sludges
2.2.4Soils
2.2.5Direct Ground-Water Contamination
2.3DEFINITIONS OF CONTAMINANT CONCENTRATIONS
2.4CHEMICAL FATE AND MOBILITY
2.4.1Lead
2.4.2Chromium
2.4.3Arsenic
2.4.4Zinc
2.4.5Cadmium
2.4.6Copper
2.4.7Mercury
2.5INFLUENCE OF SOIL PROPERTIES ON MOBILITY
2.5.1Chemical Properties
2.5.2Physical Properties
3.0 AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES AND PERFORMANCE
3.1 SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND ESTABLISHMENT OF REMEDIATION GOALS
3.2 GENERAL REMEDIATION APPROACHES
3.2.1Isolation
Table 1. Remediation Technologies Matrix for Metals in Soils and Ground-Water
3.2.1.1Capping
3.2.1.2Subsurface Barriers
3.2.2Immobilization
3.2.2.1Solidification/Stabilization
3.2.2.2Vitrification
3.2.3Toxicity and/or Mobility Reduction
3.2.3.1Chemical Treatment
3.2.3.2Permeable Treatment Walls
3.2.3.3Biological Treatment
3.2.4Physical Separation
3.2.5Extraction
3.2.5.1Soil Washing
3.2.5.2Pyrometallurgical Extraction
3.2.5.3In Situ Soil Flushing
3.2.5.4Electrokinetic Treatment
3.3 PERFORMANCE OF AVAILABLE COMMERCIAL TECHNOLOGIES
3.3.2Containment
3.3.3.2Soil Washing
3.3.3.3Vitrification
Table 5. Approximate Vapor Pressures and Glass Solubility Limits for Metals
3.3.3.4Pyrometallurgical Separation
3.3.4In Situ Remediation
3.3.4.1Solidification/Stabilization
3.3.4.2Vitrification
3.3.4.3In Situ Soil Flushing
3.3.4.4Electrokinetic Extraction
3.3.4.5Biological Treatment
3.4 BEST TECHNOLOGY BY METAL
4.1CONTAINMENT
4.2SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION
4.3VITRIFICATION
4.4SOIL WASHING
4.5IN SITU SOIL FLUSHING
4.6ELECTROKINETIC TREATMENT
5.0 REGULATORY/POLICY REQUIREMENTS AND ISSUES
Table 11. Examples of U.S. Cleanup Goals/Standards for Selected Metals in Soils
6.0 LESSONS LEARNED AND TECHNOLOGY DIRECTIONS
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Metals

Metals

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Published by Shahrul Azmi

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Published by: Shahrul Azmi on Feb 02, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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11/03/2013

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