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Building Prussia

Building Prussia

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Published by msG77
Notes on the rise of Prussia
Notes on the rise of Prussia

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Published by: msG77 on Nov 16, 2008
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Building of Prussian Empire
Power of sm states:held sway on battlefield: actual field armies ---> 40,000, wi/ reach of sm statesconcentration on training, discipline, & equip lends advantageChambers545-547, 558-561 Sweden’s brief empire...line of extraordinary rulers:Gustavus Adolphus 1611-1632Queen Christina 1632-1654Charles XII 1697-1718Kingship hered., royal pwr freedexperts from west, war subsidized, novel army features, success 30 years war Peace Westphalia: coastal regions gainedseries wars: Baltic control ---> “Swedish Lake” - Denmark/Brandenburg remained indep.1718: contracted to Swedish sphere (+ Finland and some Ger)Successful trans from grt pwr to smallPrussia“militarism”: milit needs, values permeate all spheres of lifeSetting unpromising: uninviting, low pop, poor soil wo/ mineralsmore bkwrd Saxony or Bohemia etc....flat open plain merge w/Poland, no natural frontiersPomerania: coastal, directly S of Swedeninland: electoral margraviate Brandenburg, center = Berlinestab in M.A. as border state “mark” or “march” of HRE post 1415 = HohenzollernsOriginal Prussia: Teutonic knights milit crusading order Seacoast Baltic: otherwise enclosed by PolandTo N : Ger. minorities - Lithuania, Latvia, Estoniatowns & many landlords: “Baltic Barons”no grt tie to main block Ger in West17th C: mod Prussia began appear - when # terr ---> Hohenzollerns of Brandenburg1618: duchy Prussia inherited by Elector of Brandenburg1648: East Pomerania --> Elector Brandenburg - window on BalticTher4 Hohenzollerns set about getting Slavic Pomeralia to connect (1772)Westphalia provided conn. to W Eur alsogot lands W of Elbe, + earlier inheritence further W= a base 4 lrgr holdings built in RhinelandThis condition of 3 disconnected masses ---> policy of unificationFrederick William: The Great Elector succeeded to rule 1640 - midst of 30 yrs war: tough conditionsHe put faith in army to enter politics of Balance of power goal: have army, but not use it, nurture it, but use diplomacyi.e. w/ Fr. vs. Habs, w/ Swedes vs. Polandaspired not only to margrave or elector, but King!Opportunity for Royal Title: Frederick I
 Building Prussia 1
 
1701 opp arrived: War of Spanish SuccessionEmperor request Elector Brand. support him,he said yes upon cond. be recog as King in Prussia (---> King of Prussia)A German king above all other Ger princesFred I least militaristic of founding Hohenzollerns: patron arts, learningMilitary Stateorigin: defensive in 30 yrs war outlasted this ---> characteristic of countryidea standing army not unique: unique cuz: to maintain army govt had to direct& plan life of country to supp. itarmy dev life of ownolder than Prussian state itself: 1657 Great Elector estab as 1st all Prussian inst.civil inst dev later, mainly to supp armyarmy proved more durable than state: i.e. post napoleon, & post empire collapseDevelopment financescivil govt paid by crown domains / army by taxesarmy req make crown domain more prod ---> lrg civil govt bureaucracyand more taxes ---> land, salt, excisether4: economy grew by govt sponsorship, not enterprising middle classgovt sponsorship:import experts ( a rural country) - Swiss, Frisians, Jews, Hugenotsmilit needs(&ther4 govt) dominated market for goods poor country so civil demands lowSocial Dev and Class Structurecivil M.C. submissiveJunkers(landed arist) absorbed ---> milit servicearmy used as tool dev “all Prussian” mentalitysense of service to King/state exalted as virtueduty, obedience, service, sacrifice plan worked, few Junker families w/ no one in uniformGreat Elector & successors repressed estates/assemblies in which landed arist main prt--->Landlord agree accept ruler’s govt, army service for “hereditary subjeciton” v. peasantJunkers preferred as officers: habit of command, ther4 bourgeois officers = rareLaw prohib sale of “noble” lnads ---> non nobles to preserv officer classther4 classes frozen by owning nonexchangable propertyM.C. limited: no arist by landed gentry route--->little spirit independencePruss M.C. not wealthy (few old Ger towns in Prussia)typical M.C. = govt official of some sorthonest, efficient, but deferred to nobles, in awe of armyFrederick William I (1713-1740)
 Building Prussia 2

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