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Safety Integrity Level Accoarding IEC 61508 and IEC 61511

Safety Integrity Level Accoarding IEC 61508 and IEC 61511

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Published by Amine Dabbabi
Safety Integrity Level Accoarding IEC 61508 and IEC 61511
Safety Integrity Level Accoarding IEC 61508 and IEC 61511

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Published by: Amine Dabbabi on Feb 02, 2012
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09/11/2012

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PROVIDING SAFETY SOLUTIONS
2721 Hopewell Place NECalgary, Alberta, Canada T1Y 7J7Houston
|
Abu Dhabi
|
Beijing
|
Singapore1-866-FIREGAS (347-3427)ph. (403) 219-0688
|
x. (403) 219-0694www.net-saety.com
|
nsmsales@net-saety.com
SAFETY INTEGRITY LEVEL (SIL) - IEC 61508/61511
Saety Integrity Level (SIL) is defned as a relative level o risk-reduction provided by a saety unction, or to speciy a target levelo risk reduction. In (somewhat) simple terms, SIL is a measurement o perormance or probability o ailure on demand (PFD)required or a Saety Instrumented Function (SIF) within a Saety Instrumented System (SIS) based on the ANSI/ISA 84, IEC 61508,and IEC 61511 standards.All organisational and technical risk reduction measures act as a counterweight to the risk potential. The values SIL 1 to SIL 4(SIL = Saety Integrity Level) are derived rom the risk analysis. The greater the risk, the more reliable risk reduction measuresmust be implemented and, consequently, the greater the reliability the components used must exhibit. Typically, as the SILlevel increases, the cost and complexity o the hardware/system also increase. The our SIL levels are defned, with SIL4 beingthe most dependable and SIL1 being the least. A SIL is determined based on a number o quantitative actors in combinationwith qualitative actors such as development process and saety lie cycle management. The requirements or a given SIL are notconsistent among all o the unctional saety standards.
SIL Determination
The determination o the saety integrity level (SIL) or each Saety Instrumented Function (SIF) in a Saety Instrumented System(SIS) is dependent on the ollowing actors:The Corporate Standard or the tolerable risk ater applying all the layers o protection. This tolerable risk may1.be a unction o the cost o reducing the residual risk. The IEC 61508-5 Standard – Example o methods or thedetermination o saety integrity levels, discusses the general concept o risk and saety integrity in Annex A and theconcepts o ALARP and tolerable risk in Annex B o the Standard outline.The overall risk rom the unprotected hazards that can occur. The Layers o Protection Analysis (LOPA) provides a2.methodology or determining the overall risk rom data determined in a Hazard and Risk Analysis (HAZOP). The LOPAmethodology is discussed in Answer #C o the Standard outline.The risk reduction provided by all o the non-SIS protection layers. LOPA also provides a methodology or analyzing the3.risk reduction rom various non-SIS protection layers.The residual risk remaining can be computed rom the unprotected risk and the risk reduction provided by the non-SISprotection layers. I the residual risk is greater than the tolerable risk, a SIS is required to provide the fnal required risk reduction.The average probability o ailure on demand o each saety instrumented protection unction, PFDavg, is equal to the necessaryrisk reduction the protection unction must provide. The necessary risk reduction is computed by dividing the tolerable risk by the residual risk remaining beore the application o the saety instrumented unction. The SIL or each saety unction canbe determined rom Table 2 in IEC 61508-1 by use o the required PFDavg. Annex C in IEC 61508-5 discusses this method o determining the required saety integrity level and includes example calculations.Annexes D and E in IEC 61508-5 describe two qualitative methods or determining the SIL. Annex D outlines the risk graphmethod, and Annex E describes a hazardous event severity matrix method.It should be noted that the PFDavg and thecorresponding SIL must be computed or all saety unctions required within the Saety Instrumented System.
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PROVIDING SAFETY SOLUTIONS
2721 Hopewell Place NECalgary, Alberta, Canada T1Y 7J7Houston
|
Abu Dhabi
|
Beijing
|
Singapore1-866-FIREGAS (347-3427)ph. (403) 219-0688
|
x. (403) 219-0694www.net-saety.com
|
nsmsales@net-saety.com
SIS Selection
The user should determine the appropriate saety standard to be used to develop their guidelines. The IEC 61511 standardrequires all components and subsystems necessary to achieve a saety instrumented unction to be designed in accordancewith IEC 61508 or to meet the requirements or a component to be proven-in-use. Clause 11.5.3 in the IEC 61511-1 specifes therequirements or proven-in-use. Clause 11.5.3 requires many years o operational experience with a component or device, sothe random hardware ailure rates can be determined to a single sided lower confdence limit o at least 70%. Most users willprobably purchase logic solvers rom manuacturers that have developed logic solvers designed in accordance with IEC 61508and certifed by an independent certifcation body like TÜV.The guidelines or selection o the logic solver required to implement a complete SIS that perorms many saety instrumentedunctions should consider the ollowing actors:The IEC 61511 standard requires manuacturers and suppliers o devices or saety instrumented systems to conorm to1.the IEC 61508 standard. Hence the manuacturer o the logic solver should ollow the IEC 61508 standard.The logic solver portion o the SIS should be suitable or implementing the SIF requiring the highest SIL.2.The logic solver manuacturer should provide a saety manual that details all restrictions and operating requirements3.or the logic solver and it’s associated tools that are appropriate or the SIL required. The IEC 61511 standard requiresa saety manual or the logic solver.I the user or the user’s system integrator selects a logic solver that was not designed in accordance with IEC 61508, the4.logic solver must the requirements or proven-in-use.The hardware ault tolerance requirements in Clause 11.4 in IEC 61511-1 must be ollowed when selecting the logic solver.5.The spurious trip rate o the logic solver, MTTFspurious, should also be considered since a spurious trip can disrupt6.production and result in signifcant lost production costs.Since very ew sensors and fnal elements have been designed to be in accordance with IEC 61508, most users will be required toselect sensors and fnal elements that have been proven-in-use.The guidelines or selection o the sensors and fnal elements required to implement saety instrumented unctions shouldconsider the ollowing actors:The sensor and fnal element process interaces should be included when determining the ailure rates and ailure1.modes o the subsystem.The sensor and fnal element subsystem redundancy required to implement the various saety instrumented unctions2.should be determined by calculation o the PFDavg or each subsystem.The sensor and fnal element hardware common cause should be included in the calculation o PFDavg.3.The hardware ault tolerance requirements in Clause 11.4 in IEC 61511-1 must be ollowed when selecting the sensor4.and fnal element redundancy.
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