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FFM Libya Report

FFM Libya Report

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Published by DImisko
Report of the The Independent Civil Society Mission to Libya, January 2012
Report of the The Independent Civil Society Mission to Libya, January 2012

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: DImisko on Feb 02, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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12/30/2012

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1
Report of the Independent Civil Society Fact-FindingMission to Libya
 January 2012
 
2
Table of Contents1. Introduction .................................................................................................... 5
 
1.1. Terms of Reference
.................................................................................................................... 6
1.2. Methodology
.............................................................................................................................. 6
1.3. Members of the Mission
........................................................................................................... 7
1.4. The Training Team
.................................................................................................................... 8
1.5. Acknowledgments
.................................................................................................................... 8
1.6. Structure of the Report
............................................................................................................. 9
2. Con
ict Chronology ................................................................................... 10
 
2.1. Phase 1: Peaceful Demonstrations
........................................................................................ 10
2.2. Phase 2: Armed Con
ict
......................................................................................................... 11
3. The Parties to the Con
ict ......................................................................... 12
 
3.1. The Former Government of Libya
........................................................................................ 12
3.1.1. Background
....................................................................................................................... 12
3.1.2. Governmental Structure and Authority
....................................................................... 12
3.1.3. The Security Forces
.......................................................................................................... 14
3.1.4. The Libyan Armed Forces
............................................................................................... 14
3.1.5. The
Katiba
.......................................................................................................................... 15
3.1.6. The Revolutionary Commi
t
ees
..................................................................................... 15
3.2. The Former Opposition Forces
.............................................................................................. 16
3.2.1. The National Transitional Council
................................................................................ 16
3.2.2. Armed Forces
.................................................................................................................... 16
3.3. Third States Engaged in Hostilities Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1973, andacting under NATO Command
................................................................................................... 18
4. Applicable Legal Framework ................................................................... 19
 
4.1. Classi
cation of the post-15 February Situation in Libya
................................................. 19
4.1.1. Peace-Time Protests
......................................................................................................... 19
4.1.2. Non-International Armed Conflict
................................................................................ 19
4.1.3. Parallel International Armed Con
ict
........................................................................... 20
 
3
4.2. Applicable International Law
................................................................................................ 20
4.2.1. International Human Rights Law
.................................................................................. 21
4.2.2. International Humanitarian Law
................................................................................... 21
4.2.3. International Criminal Law
............................................................................................ 22
4.3. The Obligation to Investigate and, where appropriate, Prosecute Serious Violations ofInternational Law
........................................................................................................................... 23
5. Findings and Observations of the Fact-Finding Mission ................... 25
 
5.1. Potential Violations Commi
t
ed by the Former Government of Libya
........................... 25
5.1.1. General Observations
...................................................................................................... 25
5.1.2. The Use of Excessive Force against Demonstrators
.................................................... 26
5.1.3. Arbitrary Detention: A Campaign of Mass Arrest
...................................................... 27
5.1.4. Conduct of Hostilities: Indiscriminate a
t
acks in Zawiya and Misrata
.................... 28
5.1.5. Use of Human Shields
..................................................................................................... 29
5.1.6. Allegations of Rape
.......................................................................................................... 30
5.1.7. Torture, Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment, and Abuses in Detention
.... 31
5.1.7.1. The ‘Container Detention Facility’ in Khoms
........................................................ 32
5.1.7.2. Mass Killings: Yarmouk Detention Centre.
........................................................... 34
5.2. Potential Violations Commi
t
ed by the former Opposition Forces and associatedentities
.............................................................................................................................................. 34
5.2.1. General Observations: Retaliatory Acts and the apparent Extrajudicial Executionof Muammar Gaddafi
................................................................................................................ 34
5.2.2. General Observations: The Libyan Judicial System
.................................................... 35
5.2.3. Killing of Persons
Hors de Combat
.................................................................................. 36
5.2.4. Torture, Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment, and Abuses in Detention
.... 36
5.2.4.1. Sibrata Detention Facility
......................................................................................... 37
5.2.4.2. Zawiya Detention Facility
........................................................................................ 37
5.2.5. The Treatment of Suspected Mercenaries
..................................................................... 38
5.2.6. Forcible Displacement of Suspected ‘Enemies of the Revolution’: The Case ofTawergha
..................................................................................................................................... 39
5.3. Potential Violations Commi
t
ed by Third States Engaged in Hostilities Pursuant toSecurity Council Resolution 1973
................................................................................................ 41
5.3.1. General Observations
...................................................................................................... 42

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