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CCNA Cheatsheet

CCNA Cheatsheet

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1
Cheat Sheet for
 Cisco Certified Network Associate Study Guide to Exam 640-507 (2
nd
Ed.)
originally by Todd Lammle,
 
published by Sybex; condensed May 2001 by Robert S. with gratitude to Shankar
“Good artists copy. Great artists steal.” – Pablo Picasso
The best way to study something is to regurgitate it in one’s own words. WhenI studied CCNA, I wrote this thing. I reduced 700 pages to a fourteen-pagebooklet so I could carry it around, reviewing everywhere I went.This document is color-coded, with all the IOS commands in
violet arial narrow
,for example. As I realize the minimal benefits of color when one prints on black and white laser printers, I’ve tried to be sensible about my choices. I still suggestyou print it in color, if possible. (
Word Viewer 
wrongly italicizes my commands.)In each chapter, Todd Lammle lists key terms with which you should befamiliar before the exam. I haven’t tried to define every term but I have writtenthem inblue, underlined in squiggles, so look at each and ask, “Can I define this?”
 
An easier color code to spot is my grey shading. This indicates stuff Lammle,instructors, and some unreliable friends have told me is
not likely
to be on theexam. Reading it might help your understanding but don’t sweat memorizing it.Wiggly red lines to either side show text I’ve been strongly warned to study.I’m more careful than Lammle to show correct prompts – I didn’t want to wastespace repeating
config t
and
int s0
– so it’s up to you to notice the mode we’re in.I try to avoid repeating myself, so you might have to read the whole booklet tofind a definition you need. When I introduce terms, I often show them in
boldface type
(but, then, I use bold face type for a lot of things).To save space, I use the following conventions:- I refer to OSI layers as “L2,” “L3,” &c., instead of “data-link” and “network.”- When I bother to show IOS prompts, I leave off the router names.- I shorten bandwidth to BW, virtual circuit to VC, configuration file to CF, &c.- The proper Latin plural of “status” is “stati” but I sometimes say “stats.”- “Et cetera” (or “etc.,” meaning “and so forth”) can also be written “&c.”I’ve borrowed from other sources, too, because I want as much of the exam hereas possible. I’ve tried to make it all self-evident. This booklet, alone, might beenough to pass the exam (everything on my exam is here) but that wasn’t my goal.Although Lammle’s $140 book isn’t perfect (his Frame Relay stuff has severalerrors and omissions, for example, and the CD-ROMs are full of mistakes) but youshould still buy it and the network simulator software that comes with it.My exam was 75 minutes & 65 questions. Different exams have differentpassing scores, so your final score is MEANINGLESS. Buona Fortuna!
Ciscoly Yours,
R.S.Contents: [
 Note: Chapters II & VI are paired.
] IV router configuration basics (pg 7) VIII IPX (pg 10)I LANs, OSI model, Cisco model (pg 1) V IP routing, RIP, IGRP (pg 8) IX access lists (pg 11)II switches, Spanning Tree Protocol (pg 5) VI VLANs, tagging, VLAN Trunk Protocol (pg 5) X WANS, HDLC, PPP Frame Relay, ISDN (pg 12)III IP subnetting (pg 6) VII boot-up & connectivity tools (pg 9) Appendix B the Catalyst 1900 switch (pg 14)
CHAPTER I – INTERNETWORKING and the OPEN SYSTEMS INTERCONNECTION MODEL
or “Please Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Around.”
 (5-7 questions on the OSI model; an unknown number on general networking)
This chart summarizes the ISOOpen Systems Interconnectionmodel, laid out in more detail hereafter. A layered model reduces complexity, permits the use of standard interfaces, lets engineers make modular changes, lets different technologies inter-operate, accelerates evolution, and is easier to learn. Although all sevenlayers could be on the exam, they’re not equally critical: You can answer the basic OSI layer questions by knowing enough to tell them apart. The real reason to studylayers 2 and 3, where switches and routers work, and L4, where many big protocols appear, is these descriptions form the foundation for much of the exam. If youdon’t grasp the L2 – L4 details of this chapter well enough to write them out from memory, you’re toast.
layer 
L1
 
L2 L3 L4L5 L6 L7
mnemonic
“Please
 
Do
 
Not
 
Throw
 
Sausage
 
Pizza
 
Around!”
 
name
Physical Data-Link Network Transport Session Presentation Application 
unctionalmnemonic
 
 
DestinationDrop-boxes &DoorstepsNavigates theNational hiwayNetwork Truckers &TeamstersSplit-SecondSequencingPasting Parts & Pieces intoProper Products
Protocol DataUnit (PDU)
blasts framesinto
bits
 nails packetsinto
frames
 wraps segmentsinto
packets
 chops data into
segments
 
 
data
This layer isanalogous to...
a conveyorbelta mailmanfinding amailboxa navigatorfinding a towna loading dock worker boxing ashipmenta dispatcher (or talk show host)sequencing tasksa newspaper editorcompiling documentsa corporate executiveissuing instructions
The Big Picture: It’s all about...
sending andreceiving bitshardwareaddressinglogical (network)addressingpacking & shipping timing file formats giving orders
key concepts
physicaltopologyframing routing end-to-endconnectionsdialog control encryption, compression,translationassorted applicationfunctions
main network operations
puts bits onthe wire
 
frames data forlocal network routes betweennetworksprovides flow control opens / closessessions
 
demands transfers;IDs partners; finalerror resolution
 
This layer filtersPDUs using…
hardware(physical)addressesnetwork addresses / protocol #sports / sockets
devices
hubs switches routers
 
gateways
The CISCO 3-LAYER where-you-should-spend-your-money MODEL
CORE LAYER - speed is critical- can affect all users- should be fault-tolerant and reliable- no filtering, security slowdowns, or inter-VLAN routing- no workgroup access- could use FDDI, fast (100Mb) Ethernet, gigabit (1000Mb) Ethernet, or ATM- when improvements are necessary, upgrade; don’t expandDISTRIBUTION LAYER - routing- inter-VLAN routing- WAN access- gatekeeper to the core layer- determines how best to handle requests- security, filtering, firewalls- queuing (print jobs, &c.)- transitions between routing protocols (including static routing)- definition of broadcast/multicast domainsACCESS LAYER - a.k.a. the “desktop layer”- more specific security- segmenting for more collision domains- connectivity to distribution layer via 100Mbps links- Dial on Demand Routing (DDR)- Ethernet switching- static routing- connect 10Mbps switches to workstations; 100Mbps switches to servers
 
 2
THE UPPER LAYERS: COMMAND & CONTROL
 
Application Layer* DATA STREAMS (MESSAGES) *
 It's all about GIVING ORDERS; the corporate executive; what you see on the screen; interaction with the user; interaction between programs; communications launching.
 The highest level of the model. It defines the manner in which applications interactwith the network, including database management, e-mail, and terminal-emulationprograms.KEY CONCEPTS:
file, print, message, database, and application services
 NETWORK OPERATIONS PERFORMED:- determining availability of communication partners and network resources- coordinating partnerships between multiple applications- ultimate authority over data integrity and error recoveryPROTOCOLS (network applications) FOUND AT THIS LAYER:-
FTP
(TCP
- port 21
) - ‘
File Transfer Protocol’ full-featured, secure filemanagement 
 -
Telnet
(UDP
- port 23
) -
terminal emulator program; uses L3 IP and L4 TCP
 -
SMTP
(TCP
- port 25
) -
‘Simple Mail Transfer Protocol’ e-mail sending
 -
DNS
(UDP
- port 53
) -
‘Domain Name Service’ English-to-IP translation
 -
HTTP
(TCP
- port 80
) -
‘HyperText Transfer Protocol’ World Wide Webbrowsing
 - POP3 (TCP) -
‘Post Office Protocol’ e-mail receiving
 
- X.400 -
alternative e-mail management 
 - NNTP -
‘Network News Transfer Protocol’ newsgroup post management 
 - TFTP (UDP) - ‘
Trivial File Transfer Protocol’ stripped-down file transfers
 - SNMP (TCP) - ‘
Simple Network Management Protocol’ (“Are you O.K?”)
 - IRC (TCP)
 – ‘Internet Relay Chat’ keyboard chat program
- EDI
- 'Electronic Data Interchange' for e-commerce transactions
Presentation Layer –
“Pasting Parts & Pieces into Proper Products” 
* DATA STREAMS *
 It's all about FILE FORMATS; the
newspaper editor;
 data on the hard disk; presentation of data to the programs in binary format.
Defines the way in which data is formatted, presented, converted, and encoded.KEY CONCEPTS:-
encryption
 -
compression
 -
translation
between file formats (MIDI, MPEG, PICT, TIFF, JPEG, ASCII,EBCDIC, &c.)
Session Layer –
“Split-Second Sequencing” 
 * DATA STREAMS *
 It's all about TIMING; the dispatcher / talk show host; organizes and directs communication sessions; keeps data separate for different applications.
Coordinates communications and maintains the session for as long as it is needed,performing security, logging, and administrative functions. Manages simplex,half-duplex, and full-duplex modes.KEY CONCEPT:
dialog control
 NETWORK OPERATIONS PERFORMED:- opening, maintenance, and closure of sessions between devices / applications- managing simplex, half-, and full-duplex modes- keeping data separate for different applications
 
PROTOCOLS (for manipulating remote systems) FOUND AT THIS LAYER:
 
- NFS -
‘Network File System’ sharing between different file systems
 - SQL
- ‘Structured Query Language’ database sorting
- RPC
- ‘Remote Procedure Call’ for running a process on another machine
- ASP -
‘Apple
alk Session Protocol’
 - X Window
- remote UNIX GUI emulator 
 - NetBIOS
- API giving programs consistent set of tools to call for network  functions
 - NetBEUI
- file sharing device driver for tiny Microsoft LANs (not routable)
 
THE MIDDLE LAYERS: SHIPPING & RECEIVING
 
Transport Layer –
“Truckers & Teamsters” 
 * chops data into SEGMENTS *
 It's all about PACKING & SHIPPING (either reliable TCP/SPX or unreliableUDP/IPX); the loading dock worker; data chopper & reassembler; creates and  reads segments; asks, “Which port (which pipeline) do we stuff this into?” “Did  the packets get where they should?” “What belongs in this pipe?” 
Defines protocols for structuring messages and supervises the validity of thetransmission by performing some error checking.KEY CONCEPT:
end-to-end connection
 NETWORK OPERATIONS PERFORMED:- data segmentation and reassembly; multiplexing several streams onto one link - acknowledging packet receipt during connection-oriented transfers- re-sequencing of received packets following connectionless transfers- flow control (buffering, source-quench messages, & windowing)- error checking & correction by counting segments & requesting retransmissions- managing virtual circuitsDISCRIMINATES BY:- application port / socket numbers, by which a segment identifies which upper-layer protocol will use its data (e.g. firewall filtering)PROTOCOLS (delivery control methods) FOUND AT THIS LAYER:- TCP
- ‘Transmission Control Protocol’ reliable delivery boy creatingconnection-oriented links
- UDP
- ‘User Datagram Protocol’ unreliable delivery boy using connectionlesstransfers
- SPX -
‘Sequenced Packet eXchange’ connection management tools added to IPX  for reliable, connection-oriented communication
 
 
TECHNOLOGIES:- gatewaysThere are 65,535 application ports in both TCP and UDP flavors. (Mostapplications, however, only use one flavor or the other.) Here are a few ports:TCP 6 L2TP 115echo 7 NNTP (TCP) 119UDP 17 NTP 123FTP data (TCP) 20 NetBIOS file share (UDP) 137
FTP
control (TCP)
21
 NetBIOS file share (UDP) 138
Telnet
(UDP)
23
 NetBIOS file share (TCP) 139
SMTP
(TCP)
25
 news 144
DNS
(UDP)
53
SNMP 161
 
TFTP (UDP) 69 SNMP trap 162finger 79 -------------------------------------------
HTTP
(TCP)
80
 NetWare IP 396POP2 (TCP) 109 HTTPS (TCP) 443POP3 (TCP) 110 RIP (UDP) 520identification (TCP) 113 Doom (yes, the game) 666Ports below 1024 are called the “well known” ports and are assigned by theInternet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). Of these, the ones from 1 to 254are used by public applications and the ones from 255 to 1023 are used byproprietary (‘saleable’) applications.Ports 1024 and above are used as needed for addressing by the upper-layers orTCP during sessions. Some examples:
 
WINS - 1512ICQ (UDP) - 4000IRC (TCP) - 6660-6669, specifically 6667 [also: 7000, et seq. for very largechat servers]ConSeal VPN (TCP) - 4995-4997
L7L6L5L4
 
3
Network Layer –
“Navigates the National Highway Network” 
* wraps segments into PACKETS (data orroute update) or DATAGRAMS *
 It's all about LOGICAL ADDRESSING; the long-haul navigator finding a town; “How do we get to that network from here?” 
Defines protocols for data routing to ensure that the information arrives at thecorrect destination node and manages communications errors.KEY CONCEPT:
routing
 NETWORK OPERATIONS PERFORMED:- logical / network identification- routing / network navigation- breaking up broadcast domainsDISCRIMINATES BY:- network (IP, IPX) addresses
 
- ‘protocol numbers’ in IP packets identifying which L4 protocol the data is forPROTOCOLS (for routing and navigation) FOUND AT THIS LAYER:- IP
- ‘Internet Protocol’ connectionless network addressing and routing
- IPX
- ‘Internetwork Packet eXchange’ unreliable delivery boy usingconnectionless transfers, NetWare's alternative to TCP/IP
 
- AppleTalk - X.25 -
enables DTE use over DCE networks; precursor to Frame Relay
 - ARP -
‘Address Resolution Protocol’ (“What's the MAC address for this IPaddress?”)
 - RARP -
‘Reverse Address Resolution Protocol’ (“I am diskless workstation XXX;What is my IP address?”)
 - BootP -
‘Bootstrap Protocol’ (“I am diskless workstation YYY; What is my IPaddress and what should I do first?”)
 - DHCP -
‘Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol’ (“I’m new here; what is ALLmy IP information?”)
 - ICMP -
‘Internet Control-Message Protocol’ error-reporting, supporting:
 
 
PING -
‘Packet Internetwork Groper’ connectivity detector 
 
 
TraceRoute -
traces packet paths using ICMP timeouts
 
 
delivery of operational messages such as “Destination Unreachable,” “BufferFull,” and “Maximum Hop Count Reached”- RIP -
‘Routing Information Protocol’ routing scheme
 - IGRP
- ‘Interior Gateway Routing Protocol’ routing scheme for large,heterogeneous networks
 - OSPF -
‘Open, Shortest Path First’ routing scheme
 - EIGRP
- ‘Enhanced Interior Gateway Protocol’ routing scheme
 - BGP
- ‘Border Gateway Protocol’ routing scheme
 - IGMP
- ‘Internet Group Management Protocol’ membership manager for multicast groups
 - RSVP
- ‘Resource reSerVation Protocol’ bandwidth reserver 
 TECHNOLOGIES:- routers
(slower, software-based)
 - layer 3 switches
(faster, ASIC hardware-based)
 
THE LOWER LAYERS: HARDWARE MANAGEMENT
 
Data-Link Layer
 – “Destination Drop-Boxes & Doorsteps” 
* nails packets into FRAMES or CELLS *
 It's all about HARDWARE ADDRESSING; the mailman finding a mailbox;“Where, exactly, is this going?” “When, exactly, does it go?” 
 Validates the integrity of the flow of data from one node to another bysynchronizing blocks of data and controlling the flow of data.KEY CONCEPT:
framing
 NETWORK OPERATIONS PERFORMED:- physical / hardware / MAC identification- framing data for transmission onto the local network segment- breaking up collision domains- CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) error notification (not correction)DISCRIMINATES BY:- hardware (MAC) addressesPROTOCOLS (for transmission) FOUND AT THIS LAYER:- 802.2 -
defines connection-oriented & connectionless operations; L2 framing
 - PPP -
‘Point-to-Point Protocol’ fake Ethernet over modem or serial link 
 - HDLC
-
 
‘High-level Data Link Control’ (generic or Cisco) error correction
 
 
- CDP
-
 
‘Cisco Discovery Protocol’ investigation of neighbor devices
 - SNAP
-
 
‘SubNetwork Architecture Protocol’ data transfer, connectionmanagement, and QoS
 - L2TP
-
 
‘Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol’ frame disguising
 TECHNOLOGIES:- switches (
 fast, application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) hardware-based)
- bridges (
slower, software-based)
- modems- ISDN “clouds”- Ethernet frames- IPX frames
(four varieties: Ethernet_II, 802.3, 802.2, & SNAP)
 - Frame Relay frames
(two varieties: Cisco & IETF)
 - Token Ring frames- ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) standard for cell-switched WANS
 
- DSL “modems”- cable “modems”The TWO SUBLAYERS and THEIR SPECIFIC JOBS:
Logical Link Control (LLC)
sublayer handlesL2 encapsulation- defined by 802.2- framing- optional flow control- packet handling instructions
 
- control-bit sequencing
Media Access Control (MAC)
sublayer controlsaccess to the media- defined by 802.3 & 802.5- CSMA/CD- MAC (hardware) addresses- logical topology- line discipline- ordered delivery of frames- optional flow control- error notification (not correction) in frames
 
- Token Ring- DQDB
(Don’t worry; nobody knows what this is.)
 SOME FRAME FIELDS of INTEREST:- FCS
- ‘Frame Check Sequence’ field in Ethernet frame (holds the CRC value)
 - SSAP
-
 
‘Source Service Access Point’ hardware address field 
 - DSAP -
‘Destination Service Access Point’ hardware address field 
 
Those Wacky IEEE Specifications:
It might help to list some big ones…802.1: bridging, switching, VLANs, STP 802.3: CSMA/CD & the Ethernets802.2: L2 framing; connection-oriented &connectionless operations802.5: Token Ring media access
Physical Layer* blasts frames into BITS *
 It's all about SENDING AND RECEIVING BITS; the conveyor belt.
 Defines the mechanism for communicating with the transmission medium andinterface hardware: voltages, wire speeds (data rates), and connector pin-outs.KEY CONCEPT:
physical topology
 (baseband or broadband)
 
PROTOCOLS (for bit sequencing) FOUND AT THIS LAYER:
 
- RS-232, RS-449, and other serial line protocols- V.32 and other CCITT modem protocolsNETWORK OPERATIONS PERFORMED:- putting bits onto the transmission mediumTECHNOLOGIES:- active (amplifying) hubs- passive hubs- repeaters- concentrators- network interface cards (NICs)
L3L2
L2a
L2b
L1

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