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Table Of Contents

1.1 CHOCOLATE AS A DRINK
1.2 EATING CHOCOLATE
1.2.2 White Chocolate
1.3 CHOCOLATE MARKETING IN THE UK
1.4 CHOCOLATE IS GOOD FOR YOU
REFERENCES
2.1 COCOA BEANS
2.1.1 Cocoa Trees
2.1.2 Commercial Cocoa-Producing Countries
2.1.3 Cocoa Pods
2.1.4 Fermentation
2.1.5 Drying
2.1.6 Storage and Transport
2.2 SUGAR AND SUGAR SUBSTITUTES
2.2.1 Sugar and its Production
2.2.2 Crystalline and Amorphous Sugar
2.2.3 Lactose
2.2.4 Glucose and Fructose
2.2.5 Sugar Alcohols
2.2.6 Polydextrose
2.3 MILK AND OTHER DAIRY COMPONENTS
2.3.1 Milk Fat
2.3.2 Milk Proteins
2.3.3 Milk Powders
2.3.4 Whey and Lactose Powders
2.4 CHOCOLATE CRUMB
ADDITIONAL READING
3.1 BEAN CLEANING
3.2 ROASTING AND WINNOWING
3.2.1 The Problem of Bean Size Variation
3.2.2 Winnowing
3.2.3 Bean Roasting
3.2.4 Nib and Liquor Roasting
3.2.5 Roasters
3.2.6 Chemical Changes during Roasting
3.2.7 Maillard Reaction
3.3 GRINDING COCOA NIB
3.3.1 Cocoa Mills
3.4.1 Alkalising (Dutching)
3.4.2 Cocoa Butter
3.4.3 Cocoa Powder
4.1 CHOCOLATE MILLING
4.1.1 Separate Ingredient Grinding Mills
4.1.2 Combined Milling
4.2 CHOCOLATE CONCHING
4.2.1 Chemical Changes
4.2.2 Physical Changes
4.2.3 Viscosity Reduction
4.2.4 Conching Machines
4.2.5 The Three Stages of Conching
5.1 VISCOSITY
5.2 PARTICLE SIZE
5.2.1 Particle Size Distribution Data
5.2.2 Effect of Particle Size on Viscosity
5.3 EFFECT OF FAT ADDITIONS ON VISCOSITY
5.4 MOISTURE AND CHOCOLATE FLOW
5.5 EMULSIFIERS AND CHOCOLATE VISCOSITY
5.5.1 Lecithin
5.5.2 Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate
5.5.3 Other Emulsifiers
5.6 DEGREE OF MIXING
6.1 STRUCTURE OF COCOA BUTTER
6.2 DIFFERENT CRYSTALLINE FORMS
6.3 PRE-CRYSTALLISATION OR TEMPERING
6.4 MIXING DIFFERENT FATS (FAT EUTECTICS)
6.5 CHOCOLATE FAT BLOOM
6.6 SOME TYPES OF NON-COCOA VEGETABLE FAT
6.6.1 Cocoa Butter Equivalents
6.6.2 Enzyme Interesterification
6.6.3 Lauric Fat Cocoa Butter Replacers
6.6.5 Low Calorie Fats
7.1 TEMPERING
7.1.1 Liquid Chocolate Storage
7.1.2 Tempering Machines
7.1.3 Hand Tempering
7.1.4 Temper Measurement
7.2 MOULDING
7.2.1 Solid Tablets
7.2.2 Chocolate Shells
7.3 ENROBERS
7.3.1 Maintaining Tempered Chocolate
7.4 SOLIDIFYING THE CHOCOLATE
7.4.1 Coolers
7.5 PANNING
7.5.1 Chocolate Coating4
7.5.2 Sugar Panning
8.1 PARTICLE SIZE MEASUREMENT
8.2 MOISTURE DETERMINATION
8.3 FAT CONTENT MEASUREMENT
8.4 VISCOSITY DETERMINATION
8.4.1 Simple Factory Techniques
8.4.2 The Standard Method
8.5 FLAVOUR
8.6 TEXTURE MONITORING
8.7 CRYSTALLISATION AMOUNT AND TYPE
8.7.1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
8.7.2 Differential Scanning Calorimetry
9.1 SPECIAL RECIPES
9.1.1 Ice-cream Coatings
9.2 SHAPE-RETAINING CHOCOLATE
1. modifying the fat phase
9.2.1 Modifying the Fat Phase
9.3.1 Factors Affecting Bubble Size
9.3.2 Water Evaporation Bubbles
10.3 PACKAGING
10.3.1 Foil and Paper Wrap
10.3.2 Flow Wrap
10.3.3 Biopolymers1
10.3.4 Robotic Packing
REFERENCE
11.1 NUTRITION
11.1.1 Fats
11.1.2 Carbohydrates
11.1.3 Proteins
11.2 OBESITY
11.3 TOOTH DECAY
11.3.1 Anti-Caries Factor in Cocoa
11.3.2 Tooth-Friendly Milk Proteins
11.3.3 Oxalic Acid
11.3.4 Oral Clearance
11.4 OTHER ALLEGED NEGATIVE REACTIONS
11.4.1 Migraine and Headaches
11.4.2 Acne
11.4.3 Allergies
11.5 POSITIVE HEALTH EFFECTS
PROJECT 2: PARTICLE SEPARATION
PROJECT 3: FAT MIGRATION
PROJECT 4: COCOA BUTTER SEPARATION
PROJECT 5: CHOCOLATE VISCOSITY
PROJECT 6: PARTICLE SIZE OF CHOCOLATE
PROJECT 7: EFFECT OF LECITHIN
PROJECT 8: CHANGING THE CONTINUOUS PHASE
PROJECT 9: CHOCOLATE TEMPER
PROJECT 10: HARDNESS MEASUREMENT
PROJECT 12: DISTRIBUTIONS AND PROBABILITIES
PROJECT 13: CHROMATOGRAPHY OF COLOURS
PROJECT 15: VISCOSITY AND FLAVOUR
PROJECT 16: HEAT-RESISTANCE TESTING
PROJECT 17: COEFFICIENT OF EXPANSION
PROJECT 18: THE MAILLARD REACTION
Glossary
Subject Index
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The Science of Chocolate

The Science of Chocolate

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Published by Arus Ureña

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Published by: Arus Ureña on Feb 03, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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