This thesis is presented for the Faculty of Science at the University of Aarhus, Denmark in orderto fulﬁll the requirements for the Ph.D. degree in Physics. Its main content is work that I havedone in cooperation with primarily my supervisor, Klaus Mølmer. The majority of this work hasalready been published elsewhere as Refs. [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. Our ﬁrst publication during my yearsas a Ph.D. student, Ref. , was on magnetic mirrors and is not included in the thesis.
First of all I would like to thank my supervisor, Klaus Mølmer, for his enthusiasm and encour-agement during the last four years. He is never too busy to discuss or explain a physical problemand his insight and creativity has been a continuous source of inspiration to me.I also thank Yvan Castin for allowing me to visit Laboratoire Kastler Brossel at the EcoleNormale Sup´erieure in Paris in the spring of 2001. During my stay, I not only learned a lot of physics, I also met a lot of very friendly people. I would especially like to thank Iacopo Carusottofor numerous invitations to various social events.My friends and colleagues at the University of Aarhus are likewise acknowledged for theenjoyable atmosphere in which my university studies have taken place. The nearly eight yearsI have spent at the Departments of Physics and Mathematics have been a pleasure because of the good company provided by both staﬀ and fellow students. Fear of leaving a someone out bymistake prevents me from listing names, you all know who you are.Finally, I am grateful to family and friends outside the university for being patient with mewhen I devoted too much attention to physics. In particular, I would like to thank my girlfriendSigne for her love and support.Uﬀe Vestergaard Poulsen˚Arhus, August 2002iii