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S21104107

S21104107

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IJERA (International journal of Engineering Research and Applications) is International online, ... peer reviewed journal. For more detail or submit yr article, please visit www.ijera.com
IJERA (International journal of Engineering Research and Applications) is International online, ... peer reviewed journal. For more detail or submit yr article, please visit www.ijera.com

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Published by: ijeraeditor on Feb 03, 2012
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B.NAGARAJU / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA)ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2012, pp.104-107
104 | Page
A Fuzzy Logic MPPT Three-Phase Grid-Connected Inverter forPhotovoltaic Applications
B.NAGARAJU
1
,
1
Assistant Professor, Department of EEEVaagdevi College of Engineering, Warangal-India
Abstract
 – 
 
 
This paper presents a three-phase grid-connected inverter designed for a 100kW photovoltaicpower plant that features a maximum power pointtracking (MPPT) scheme based on fuzzy logic. The wholesystem presented is simulated in Matlab. This fuzzy MPPTshows accurate and fast response, and is integrated in theinverter, so that a DC-DC converter is not needed. Theinverter allows full control of reactive power.Keywords
 – 
Photovoltaic, Inverter, MPPT, Fuzzy logic,Power electronics.
1. Introduction
 
Photovoltaic systems are increasing in size as they becomemore affordable and supporting schemes start to include largerinstallations. In a near future, photovoltaic systems of 100kWpeak power or more are going to be very common, and it isexpected that they will contribute with a significant share topower generation.In such a scenario, the contribution to the grid stability of PVsystems is likely to become relevant[2], as it has alreadyhappened with other renewable energies like wind power insome countries. In Spain, for instance, wind farm operators areencouraged to contribute to system stability by means of aremuneration for reactive power control. The requirements forrobust operation under grid faults and perturbances have alsoincreased. This could be applied to PV systems once theyreach a certain amount of installed power in a given region.Proper integration of medium or large PV systems in the gridmay therefore require additional functionality from theinverter, such as reactive power control. Furthermore, theincrease of average PV system size may lead to new strategieslike eliminating the DC-DC converter that is usually placedbetween the PV array and the inverter, and moving the MPPTto the inverter, resulting in increased simplicity, overallefficiency and a cost reduction. These two characteristics arepresent in the three-phase inverter that is presented here, withthe addition of a fuzzy MPPT control that shows excellentperformance.
2. Proposed System Description
 
The system that has been simulated consists of a photovoltaicarray with a peak power of 100kW connected through a DCbus to a three-phase inverter that is connected to an ideal 400Vgrid through a simple filter, as shown in Fig. 2.The MPP tracker is integrated in the inverter control (Fig.3),as there is no DC-DC converter in the chosen configuration.The whole system was simulated in Matlab-Simulink.
 A.PV Array Simulation
 The PV array is simulated using a model of moderatedcomplexity based on [1]. In this model, a PV cell isrepresented by a current source in parallel with a diode, and aseries resistance as shown in Fig. 1. There is no need for amore complex model with a second diode and / or a shuntresistance. The photo current I
 ph
depends on the irradiance
G
and the cell temperature
c
. The current I
c
provided by thecell can be calculated as:Where the saturation current I
o
is temperature dependent,
e
isthe charge of an electron,
is Boltzmann's gas constant and
n
is the idealising factor of the diode. The module is anassociation of solar cells in parallel and series. Extending theprevious cell model to a module, a similar equation can befound. But it is more useful to express such an equation interms of the open circuit voltage
oc
and short circuit currentI
sc
, as these can be estimated from the open circuit voltageand short circuit current in standard conditions that are usuallyprovided by module manufacturers, and their lineardependence on
c
and
G
respectively.
 
B.NAGARAJU / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA)ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2012, pp.104-107
105 | Page
Fig. 1: Equivalent circuit of a PV cellFig. 2: Proposed control scheme
 
Fig. 3: Proposed electrical schemeThe cell temperature T
c
is estimated considering its lineardependence on
G
and the cell temperature in normal operatingconditions that is provided by the module manufacturer. Thefinal model used to determine the relationship of a modulecurrent and voltage is shown in equation (2), where
m
designsmodule magnitudes.The PV array is made of 20 strings of 35 series connectedmodules each, connected in parallel. This gives a total peak power of around 100kW. All modules are considered to beidentical, and to work in identical conditions of temperatureand irradiance.Fig. 4: Module power and current vs. voltage forG=1000W/m2 and T=298K
 B.Fuzzy MPPT 
 For a given set of operating conditions
G
and
our modulemodel shows that the relationship between voltage, currentand power are functions similar to the ones shown in Fig. 4.The voltage that corresponds to the module maximum powervaries with temperature and irradiance variations, so a MPPtracking system is needed to ensure that we stay as close aspossible to the optimum. Usual MPPT methods includePerturb and Observe (P&O) [3], incremental conductance [4],fuzzy logic [5] and other [6,7] methods.Fig. 5: Fuzzy MPPT diagramFig. 6: Membership function plots for
 ΔU 
dc
ΔP
 pv
and ΔU
*
dc
 Here a method based on a fuzzy controller is presented thatdiffers from current ones, as it has been designed to beintegrated in the inverter instead of a DC-DC converter, anduses a reduced set of membership functions (and therefore issimpler to fine-tune) without compromising performance.Fuzzy logic controllers are suitable for nonlinear problemswhere the desired system behaviour in terms of input andoutput variables can be expressed as a set of semantic rules.They present a robust performance and good response in noisyenvironments. Usually the MPPT controls a DC-DC converterto maintain a constant DC voltage at the output of thegenerator. With an appropriate sizing of the PV array the DC-DC converter can be avoided due to the relatively smallchanges in the optimum voltage in operating conditions. Thiswill save one stage in the system and therefore will increaseefficiency. In the usual configuration with a DC-DC converterthe MPPT system outputs a signal to change the duty cycle of the converter. In this case, the MPPT will output a DC voltagereference
*
dc
to the inverter control.
As inputs, the MPPTwill need the DC bus voltage U and the power delivered bythe PV array P
 pv
, which is obtained as the product of 
dc
andthe PV array current. The increment of these variables
 ΔU 
dc
and ΔP
 pv
over a sample period are computed, which aregoing to be the inputs of the fuzzy logic controller. The outputwill be
 ΔU 
dc
*
which is then integrated to obtain the desiredreference
dc
*.
A gain is applied to all variables in order tofine tune the controller response. These gains are separated inFig. 5 in two groups: a first group that brings variable levels toa module level (so that the MPPT can be tuned for a singlemodule, and remain tuned for different PV arrayconfigurations) and a second group that controls the MPPTdynamic response. These inputs and output were chosen as itis easy to express a set of semantic rules that lead to maximumpower point tracking. The shape of the P-V curve (Fig. 4)
 
B.NAGARAJU / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA)ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2012, pp.104-107
106 | Page
makes suitable a hill-climbing approach to search themaximum. The chosen rules are shown in Table 1.Usually, a large number of membership functions are defined,such as negative-big, negative-medium,, negative-small, etc.This is not necessary, and it introduces an additionalcomplexity to the controller tuning, as the boundaries betweenseven or more membership functions have to be defined, foreach variable. In this case we have chosen a set of threemembership functions: negative (NEG) positive (POS) andzero (ZERO). T
 
heir shapes for all input and output variablesare the same as shown in Fig. 6. They are all normalised to [-11] and [0 1] so the characteristics are controlled by the inputand output gains. This reduces tuning complexity.
C.Inverter 
 The inverter control is based on a decoupled control of theactive and reactive power.The DC voltage is set by a PIcontroller that compares the actual DC bus voltage and thereference generated by the MPPT, and provides a
*
 I 
 
activecurrent reference in a synchronous reference frame attached atgrid voltage vector. The other component of current vectorrepresents the reactive current and it can be fixed at thedesired level for power factor or voltage control. By applyingthe inverse Park transformation to d-q current vectorcomponents, the desired
*
abc
 I 
 
phase current references areobtained. These are passed to a bang bang controller, whichoutputs the pulses to drive the inverter switches. The outputline voltage of the inverter is shown in Fig. 7.Fig. 7: Inverter Line Voltage. Only one phase is shown.As there is no DC/DC converter between the PV generator andthe inverter, the PV array configuration has to be chosen sothat the output voltage of the PV generator suits the inverter'srequirements. In this case a 400V grid has been chosen, so theinverter will need at least 600V in the DC bus in order to beable to operate properly. The lowest DC voltage will occurwith high ambient temperature and high irradiance (becausethe irradiance increases the cell temperature, and this effectpredominates over the increase of optimal voltage caused byan increment of the irradiance at a constant cell temperature),so the minimum number of series connected modules shouldbe determined by this worst case. As the PV array modelestimates cell temperature as a function of irradiance andambient temperature, for the worst case an ambienttemperature of 50ºC and an irradiance of 
G
=1000
2
 / 
W m
were chosen. The PV array was found torequire 35 series connected modules per string.The optimalvoltage for this configuration should stay around 700-800Vmost of the time, with some peaks that could reach a minimumof 600V and a maximum of 900V in very extreme situations.The only drawback of such a voltage is a slight increase of theinverter price as higher rated voltage of DC link capacitorsand switches are required.
3. Simulation Results
In Fig. 8 and Fig. 9 the system response to an irradiance step isshown. In t=0.2s the irradiance is changed from 150 to1000
2
 / 
W m
It can be seen that the system tracks the newoperating point very quickly, faster than most MPPTstrategies. It has to be said that this is an extreme change inirradiation levels that is unlikely to occur but shows the goodperformance of the MPPT.Fig. 8: System response to an irradiance step in t=0.2sThe maximum power point is tracked with excellent accuracyas can be seen in Fig. 9, where the generated power iscompared to the theoretical optimum calculated from the PVarray model.

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