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Socioeconomic Variable 1

Socioeconomic Variable 1

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Published by Ameni Halioui
Socioeconomic Variable 1
Socioeconomic Variable 1

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Published by: Ameni Halioui on Feb 03, 2012
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04/26/2014

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Socioeconomic variable 1
Labov�s study in NYC (1972)
r-less variety (e.g., car, four) is less prestigious than with r in NY:hypothesis
Interviewed salespersons in different department stores:salespersons will reflect the customers� socioeconomic level.
Difference in careful speech and in casual speech was big in Macy�ssalespersons speech: /r/ for Macy�s employees is the norm ortarget at which they aim, yet not the one they reached most of thetime
Sak�s employees did not show big differences in both styles--> They had more security in linguistic sense.Martha�s vineyard
Labov�s study in Martha�s vineyard (1961)
subject: centralized diphthong
/aj/, /aw/-->/c j/, /c w/
What causes this variation?
Ethnic group, economic background, geography?
Resident of the island pronounced centralized diphthongs whereassummer residents and mainland residents did not.
Among mainland islanders, an increase with age, peaking b/n 31 and45 and decrease.
Native Americans and Portuguese populations who had attempted toenter the mainstream island life displayed higher incidence of centralization
High school students who plan to go to college but to returnexhibited greater centralization whereas those who planed not toreturn exhibited lesser centralization.
Many mainland islanders showed resistance to summer residentsand took pride in being different from those.
In conclusion, the degree of centralization depends on groupidentification; how closely speakers identified with the island (Groupsolidarity)
Social Variation on Speech Styles:Taboo, Euphemism, Slang, Jargon, and Argot3 different ways speech styles vary:
 
Semantics
 
Morphology
 
Phonology
 
Vocabulary (semantics)
 
taboo - words that are seen as offensive bad words
 
was borrowed from the togan language and refers to the prohibition on theuse of, mention of, or association with particular objects, actions, or persons
 
as originally used in the Polynesian language taboo had religious connotations,but in sociolinguistics it now denotes any prohibition on the use of particularlexical items
 
English taboos are: bodily functions, body parts, sex, and death
 
usually replaced with euphemisms
 
euphemism - the avoidance of words that can be perceived as offensive,obscene, or somehow disturbing to listeners or readersSome common euphemisms in English
 
Euphemisms
 
privates
 
make love
 
perspire
 
pass away
 
collateral loses
 
Definition
 
genitals
 
sexual intercourse
 
sweat
 
die
 
civilian casualtiesTaboo and Euphemism
 
existence of taboo and euphemism represent the existence of power bydominant groups over their subordinates
 
controlling what one can say is a way of controlling behavior
 
Slang
 
slang - a label that is frequently used to denote certain informal or faddishusage's of nearly anyone in the speech community
 
low or disreputable character
 
non-standard variety of language
 
Particular slangs are associated with memberships in groups and serve
 as affirmation or solidarity when used in the presence of a member of the samegroup
 
Context is the key to understanding slangTwo Types of Slang
 
Common Slang
 
neutral everyday language thats just a little too informal for letters of 
 application e.g. fridge or T.V.
 
In-group Slang
 
a more specialized, shorter-lived slangier slang of certain group that
 exists within a specific time e.g. get off my caseMorphological Techniques involving word formation
 
A study of slang at UCLA found that there were definite word formationprocesses used to produce slang
 
The different types of word formation used: derivation, blending,clipping,acronym, and compoundingProcess of word formation in UCLA slang
 
Slang Meaning Source Process
 
sucky awful
suck derivation[v to adj]
 
gork nerd
geek+dork blending
 
cas all right
casual clipping
 
T.F.A. great
totally acronym fucking awesome
 
fake- tanning
fake+bake compound bake salon
Semantic techniques of Metaphor

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