DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
DBMS is software system and its main purpose is to store data but every software whichstores data is not DBMS.Characteristics of DBMS
it must provide a easy language for retrieval and manipulation of data.
Language should not have complex programming techniques and it should supportstructural programming.
Language supported by DBMS – SQL(Structured Query Language)
It must provide concurrent access to data( Multiple transaction can be performed on data ata time).
It must provide data integrity ( No replicated data). –It must provide security( prevent accessing of data by unauthorized user)DBMS store data in form of
. A table consist of
is collection of tables. Consider student tablegiven below.RollNoNameAddressDOB1Vivek 12, jivaji nagar18/8/872PriyeshM25-gandhinagar15/6/90In this Student table there are four columns(RollNo, Name, Address, DOB) and tworows(records). Each column is defined with a data type. Some General data types supported by DBMS are:
Varchar- for string of characters2.Number- for numeric values3.Date- for date and time
are the conditions which are required to be satisfied when data is inserted or deleted or modified. Suppose for Student table a constraint is defined to check age of studentsis not more than 20, then we can apply check for DOB > “31/12/1990”. If we try to insertentry for a student with DOB less than 31/12/1990 then insertion of record will give error andtransaction will not be completed successfully.
- A software system is said to be a Relational DBMS if it follows all 12 rulessuggested by E. F. Codd. Oracle follows only 7-8 rules and MS access follows only 3-4 rules.
STRUCTURED QUERY LANGUAGE
This is standard query language which should be implemented by all RDBMS for defining,manipulation and retrieval of data. SQL statements can be divided into 3 categories:
( data definition language): used to define tables. e.g. Create, Alter, Update
(data Manipulation Language): used to manipulate data in tables. e.g. insert, update,delete, select
(data control language): e.g. Commit, rollback Uses of some component of SQL is given below:
: used to create a tableExample: create table Student ( Rollno Number(5),Name Varchar(20) Not Null,Address varchar(30),DOB Date )
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