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Histopathological_studies_on_the Effect_of Sodium Fluoride_on The_reproductive Organs and Body Weight of Male Albino Rat

Histopathological_studies_on_the Effect_of Sodium Fluoride_on The_reproductive Organs and Body Weight of Male Albino Rat

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Published by ijsidonlineinfo
Albino rat, Fluoride,
Antifertility effects,
Reproductive organs
Albino rat, Fluoride,
Antifertility effects,
Reproductive organs

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Published by: ijsidonlineinfo on Feb 04, 2012
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 Smita Tiwari et al., IJSID 2011, 1 (2), 294-302
International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 1, Issue 2, November-December 2011
Smita Tiwari
and R.K.Pande
Prof.of zoology & principal, S.K. (P.G.) College, Basti-272002 (U.P),
P.G.Department of ZoologyAnd Environmental Biology, D.B.S.(P.G.) College, Dehradun-248001(U.K.), India
International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries
 An International peer Review Journal for Science
Research Article Available online through
Received: 09.09.2011Modified: 16.10.2011Published: 29.12.2011
 Albino rat, Fluoride, Antifertility effects,Reproductive organs
*Corresponding Author 
Dr. Smitha Tiwari
Dehradun, Uttarakhand 
The effect of chronic exposure of Sodium Fluoride(NaF), (5, 20, 50 mg/kg b.w.) for 90days, on reproductivetissue damage in young male albino rat was evaluatedhistopathologicaly alongwith certain genital tissue wet weight . Damaging effect on testicular histoarchitecturealongwith disfigured tubular structure was recordedalongwith histological change in other organs viz.-Epididymis , vasdeference seminal vesicle , and prostategland . Even the epermatogenesis seemed to be arrestedand clumping of spermatozoa was also obsorbed. Thesaid effect was not observed in the control group.
 Smita Tiwari et al., IJSID 2011, 1 (2), 294-302
International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 1, Issue 2, November-December 2011
Fluoride is a trace element and has clinical importance as it prevents dental caries (Robert Jr.1980) and is used for the treatment of Paget’s disease (Robert Jr.1980). Besides its clinical importance ,at present fluoride is considered as an important water pollutant. Fluoride contamination of groundwater was noted above the tolerable limit in Sri Lanka, China , West Indies, Spain, Holland, Italy, Southand North America and India (Suma Latha et al.1999). In India, fluoride contamination of the top aquifersystem was also noted in Andhra Pradesh , Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujrat, Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana,Bihar, Kerala, and West Bengal (Handa 1975; Suma Latha et al.1999). The tolerable limit of fluoride indrinking water is 1ppm (Erickson 1978; Robert Jr.1980; Agrawal et al. 1997), but at various zones inIndia, the drinking water contains 10 to25 ppm of fluoride result in inhibition in the Kreb’s cycle (Boginet al. 1976) as well as induction of muscle atrophy (Kaul and Susheela 1974; Susheela and Kharp 1990),liver toxicity (Saralakumari et al, 1988; Carlson and Suttle 1996), and kidney toxicity (Suketa and Terui1980). There is paucity of information of fluoride on the reproductive system. Few reports available inthis line stated that fluoride toxicity results in impairment of fertility (Messer et al. 1973), low birth rate(Messer et al. 1973; Freni 1994), and deflagellation of sperm both in human and experimentalanimals(Chinoy and Sequeria 1989), Recently , we reported that fluoride intoxication is associated withinhibition in testicular androgenesis and gametogenesis (Ghosh et al. 2002). Fluoride at theis dose alsoaffects the reproductive system in humans and in experimental animals (Chinoy and Narayan 1994),Therefore, from that angle, the results of this experiment have implications in the community.
The study was conducted on young male albino rats (
Rattus rattus
), of average age 12-14 weeksand weighing 125-200grams. They were acclimatized to laboratory conditions for 15 days prior to thecommencement of the treatment. The rats were kept in open air cages (60x45x45 cm) at roomtemperature (Edmond,1950). The rats were fed standard rodent pellet (Hindustan Lever Ltd.) and waterwas allowed ad libitum. After the treatment animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Test Chemicals- Sodium fluoride (ExcelaR) obtained from Qualigens Fine Chemicals, Mumbai was used.
(a) Histopathological studyExperimental Design:
The rats were divided into the following four groups:Group 1- Control,
Group 2-4-Experimental: 5,20,50mg/kg b.w. of sodium fluoride dissolved in1ml.of double distilled water/kg.b.w./ day were given orally for the 30 days. 5 rats in each group of 5mg ,20mg and 50mg doses. Thereafter, they were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and reproductive organswere taken out, for histological studies.
 Smita Tiwari et al., IJSID 2011, 1 (2), 294-302
International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 1, Issue 2, November-December 2011
296The reproductive organs were removed and fixed in alcoholic Bouins Fluid. The tissues (Testes,Epididymis , Vas deferens, Seminal vesicle and Prostate) were washed in 70% alcohol and thendehydrated in alcholic series and embedded in paraffin wax, several sections were cut of 6 micron andstained with iron Hemotoxylin and Eosin for Histopathological examination. (McManus and Lowery,1965) After conducting the above experiment, histopathological studies were conducted by preparing thestained microtome slides. Histopathological studies were observed and compared with the control, underthe NaF stress.
(b) Body Weight and Organ Weights
Final body weight of each animal was recorded on the day of sacrifice . Testis, Epididymis , vasdeferens, Seminal vesicle and prostate were dissected out , and wet weights of these organs weremeasured by single pan electrical balance .
Control rats consisted of highly expanded semniferous tubules with germinal epitheliumconsisting of germ cells, such as primary spermatocyte, secondary spermatocyte, spermatids andspermatozoa. The interstitial space was filled with loose connective tissue, made up of cell of Leydigs andblood vessels.
(Plate -1)
The germinal epithelial cells were found touching closely the epithelial cells of other seminiferous tubules. In the central region, spermatozoa seemed to be lesser but no significant change in the shape of seminiferous tubules were observed.
(Plate- 1a)
Their was significant intermingling of the seminiferous tubules. Even the spermatogonia and spermatocytes also displayeddamage and disruption.
(Plate- 1b)
The shape of the seminiferous tubules seemed to be quitedisintegrated and the spermatogonia and spermatocytes were damaged to a very high degree. In thecentral region of the tubule and in between the tubules the damaged cell debris has dissolved showingvacuoles.
The early stages of spermatogenesis regarding its reinitiation in hypophysectomizedrats under gonadotropic hormonal stimulation are reported by Lostroh et.al, (1963); Chowdhury andSteinberger, (1975); Chemes et al. (1976, 1979).A dose dependent reduction in body weight of NaFexposed rats is indicative of impending toxicity (Chinoy and Sequeria, 1989 b).
The transverse section of Caput epididymis presented a normal histological picture. The epithelialcells of the caput were tall, columnar with nucleus arranged in a row, near the thin basement membrane.The segments of stereocilia were more profuse in the caput region than in the cauda.
(Plate- 2)
Theepithelium of the cauda consisted of low cuboidal cells. The lumen of the ductules was larger in the cauda

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