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Table Of Contents

Chapter I, The Night op Asia
Chapter IV. The Voice from Within
Chapter VI. The Cabinet and the
Chapter X. Japan and Pbace
Renaissance, begun at the end of the
the arrival oftheAmericanCommodore
PrinceNijo,—theheadof theFujiwara
It is proper to state that the present
The Ideals of the East," is
but upon information derived through
the author's special acquaintance with
which have enabled the present genera-
"Yellow Peril"; that the empire,
which may affect the future of the
Orient; and he speaks especially of the
strange borderland where quaint shad-
Christendom. In the mysterious no-
thing is improbable. Exaggeration is
the vast sources of information at the
hatred of the Oriental which is a relic
cerning our present conditions and fu-
Our sympathizers have been pleased
have introduced Western science and
and the organization necessary for car-
fronted Japan in her effort to bring an
Oriental nation to face the terrible ex-
same lethargy lay upon us which now
veloping all spontaneity within its mys-
mosphere of apathy. Religion could
out a knowledge of the dark back-
has overtaken them since that disas-
monks to the thought-centers of China,
manity is marked by a simultaneous
them a desert like that out of which they
themselves came. It was not the first
Scythians had often succeeded in tem-
the Ural and overflow Moscow. The
on their path of conquest through
neighbors even began to wane after the
Mongol conquerors of Chioa at-
so formidable to-day. The Mongol
tendom such as papal Rome could
of the Italian Renaissance
have allowed him to crush the life of
lands they had subjugated. Entire
ther with the dreadful clash of race-
bined to produce a mental shock and
anguish of spirit from which the In-
barbaric patronage. What was left
only among the despairing echoes of
Attempts to overthrow the foreign
Bright dynasty, which wrested the gov-
Scarcely had the destruction attendant
hundred and seventy years we were as
reigned over the country from Kioto
great barons struggled for supremacy
kugawa shoguns
sacred conception is the thought-in-
devotion to the Solar Throne became
The great genius of lyeyasu is ap-
Mikado in the national scheme. In
gun paying personal homage to the
wended its way slowly toward Kioto
they recognized the necessity of the im-
Kioto court was deprived of those last
lowed to seek audience of the Mikado
commanded a mysterious awe. His
those princely bureaucrats who par-
through various different phases of
kado and the place they occupied in the
them well disposed toward themselves
by intermarriage and timely financial
which they were still allowed to retain
or because they traced their lineage
zama daimios were a source of great
On such a map we will find the daimi-
Yedo to sit in conference over ques-
inauguration of a system by which each
time as the daimios were not under im-
was given them to form or carry out
were encouraged to such an extent that
Below the daimios came the samu-
But with the advent of the Toku-
of the feudal period intervening be-
an heirloom Jeft to them by the Kama-
giving the samurai a Confucian educa-
Besides his fencing-bouts and jiujitsu
composition of bad Chinese poems be-
were called ronin (the unattached)
the Restoration was to be announced to
help of the sovereign against the no-
they were even allowed to develop self-
the medium in which the revenues of
what belonged to the higher orders
mercy of Amitaba for absorption in
within itself by the dams and dikes of
spontaneity ceased with the end of the
seventeenth century. The microscopic
came in us accentuated to a degree un-
some vitality is to be found. The
Yet the hibernation of Japan within
her chrysalis must have been pleasant
enough to avail himself of them. Said
SOME critics see in the encourage- ment given to learning that flaw
ment which caused its ultimate down-
true that the result of these measures
Imn in the Tokugawa academies. To
those who have seen our landscapes
refute those charges of heartlessness
ventionalism—^the moral bondage of
the achievements of the spiritual work-
plored toward the light. Chinese man-
order to escape from social trammels
counterpart of the other. In Indian
necessary counterbalance to the Brah-
tude often construed as a false idea of
but the dynasty invariably recovered its
which had its root in the devotion of the
time became the leading school of
neighboring barons on the monasteries
Jesuit movement had not covered a
pointed a lay officer to control all af-
Under the protection afforded to the
and strict regime
feudal age all branches of learning
Sung dynasty, and the teaching they
Chinese sage, was recognized as the
by lyeyasu. The general trend of
ergy on his abstract rules of morality
lowed by the Japanese academicians
scheme for preserving absolutism as
Buddhist in its nature) gave to the na-
low the quest mysterious in regions un-
IT seems to be the general impression among foreigners that it was the
West who, with the touch of a magic
united to cause the regeneration of Ja-
ten in banishment. They even coursed
from within the prison walls and
ment when they united to leap in cat-
the end of the seventeenth century as a
It was a bold stand for them to take,
were considered orthodox and their au-
and all were objects of disapprobation
Japanese pronunciation of Wangyang-
remarkable man was a great general as
China. His philosophy was an ad-
teachings it was necessary to live the life
such an impression on the moral life of
"Living Confucius." Another, devot-
dynamic conception of the cosmic force
of the past and amid the tumultuous
of strength and goodness. He is the
preme power or that sovereign cause
quickens a new spring. The dragon re-
same. What flower is? What life?
The secret of knowledge, according to
raku returned and reported to the
of equine beauty and strength. To the
The orthodox academicians were
our generals and admirals who have
spread of Oyomian philosophy that
Japan recognized the dragon amid the
thing to fear from the revolutionaiy
garrison and held them in check while
ways clear above."
Neither the heresy of the Classic
evolved the political conception that led
Mikado from the Chinese sages. By
of thought. Toward the end of the
creased to such an extent that the Toku-
rare manuscripts and encyclopedic
connoisseurs were appointed to inves-
All this continued to lift the veil which
ing of the past dawned on the minds of
the Golden Pavilion of the shoguns
Sadly they read the poems of some
Yoshino,^ where he held his court until
the time when the cherry-blossoms cov-
cause was already lost. They read how
Soon as the memory of past ages
them. They saw the Mikado himself
made pilgrimages to the imperial mau-
mean steel. The samurai, like his
petuosity was always tempered by his
code of honor. In the feudal days
duty which made him disregard all ob-
merly been consecrated to the service of
Mito and the lords of Echizen. The
Strange whispers traveled from the
foreign imperialism; believing in the
them the earth is no longer filled with
teenth century has witnessed a wonder-
When material efficiency is complete,
complished? When the passion of fra-
The picture of Western glory unfor-
geous mask of the present? The voice
of socialism is a wail over the agonies
Capital and Labor
means not merely the imposition of so-
Away with the Western barbarians !
Disaster itself. But our mental stand-
point of a few generations back was
ental the glory of Europe is but the
If we place ourselves in the position
grandfathers. Their fears were not al-
the White Disaster which was descend-
attempt to reach the coveted wealth of
The beginning of the seventeenth
Western advance and often hurled it
brightness of the Crescent was fast
rated the imposition of Russian inter-
1803 the last of the Grand Moguls be-
the steam-engine all spring up in for-
her finding markets for her goods. Her
humane statesmen are drowned in the
chance has individualized Eastern trade
What has become of India? It is to-
congresses that dare not protest. Bur-
ma was in existence but yesterday: in
What need to mention the painful
comedies enacted in Persia and Siam or
Protectorate! Against whom?
opiumon China at the mouth ofthe can-
and Hi. The kindly intervention of the
In spite of repeated promises of evacua-
loved forefathers turned into railway
West is the humiliation of Asia
Eleven years before that event the
of themselves to chase back the intrud-
favor of his son and remain in retire-
attack had meant but little to the coun-
a day's march of the city of Yedo lay
the black hulks of a formidable fleet
whose admiral refused to retire until a
minds of our grandfathers. Was the
waters? Was not the divine land al-
arms! Jhoi! Jhoi! Away with the
ered riders rushed through every castle
day could be heard the clanging of steel
on anvils forging the accoutrements of
burst forth in a fiery expression of
hundred years the daimios were asked
what steps should be taken for the pro-
forever before the rays of the Rising
HAD it not been for the timely ar- rival of the American Embassy
of the arrival of the American Embassy
given a chance to prepare itself for the
boudoir an element of discord which
of the inner household. Of these two
quet to listen to the grievances of his
people and preferred the discourse of
have often fluctuated with the adher-
thrown only by the aggression of some
concerned: the household may deny
The power of the Chinese imperial
from her boudoir pulled the reins of the
possessed of remarkable genius and suc-
of full sovereignty by a woman. The
present Empress Dowager of China
there was constant friction between the
private life exerted an immense influ-
strong character to remain untram-
of conservatism and hatred of compro-
Atthe time ofthe firstAmericanEm-
policy to which Japan owes her present
men of a fallen dynasty. Even his ne-
not cowardice; if he had allowed himself
the well-equipped Americans? It is
merely considered it as a necessary evil
the death of Abe. He recognized nev-
systems of drill. Both war-ships and
pears to have appreciated the fact that a
take in the eyes of Tokugawa histori-
should succeed to the shogunate on the
He was adored by the daimios and
that the court of Kioto would be
pleased to have him as shogun. Abe
aceompKsh almost anything. There
present Shogun and the ladies of his
court disliked him. As a samurai and
minister he recognized the power of the
the boudoir could bring to bear upon
Kioto court and unwittingly alienated
Townsend Harris. Times were indeed
court nobles who had formerly trem-
asked many perplexing questions and
of a foreign nation should not obey the
laws of the country in which they came
gawa autocracy: he it was who accom-
was possessed of no servile spirit. He
ready to carry out the wishes of his
the Kioto court and the daimios upon
was well within the prerogative in-
mios about it. He recognized the fact
ing the premiership was to declare the
was succeeded by Keiki. Hikone's sec-
daimios who had been recognized lead-
highly resented the audacity of the
and plan countermoves. The prince
move. In the spring of 1859 nearly
mostdeplorableresult ofthis coup d'etat
was the loss to Japan of a great num-
Shoyin of Choshiu, precursor and in-
Hashimoto-Sanai of Echizen, a states-
man of a Mazzini-like intellect, for
Saigo of Satsuma, had a hairbreadth es-
but the silence which followed was omi-
nous. Assassination always lurks in
the late spring of 1860 it was snowing
road from the palace of the lord of
passed on their way to pay the usual
denly they were attacked by seventeen
Hikone was killed almost before his
patched the rest. These repeated at-
energy which was displayed by the na-
tion in adopting a rapid series of po-
change was constantly urging the na-
years that followed the Restoration
could not equal in activity this short
old while absorbing the new. Like the
The turmoil of the Restoration was
Mikado or to the Shogun, the son op-
of extreme views. The Restoration
but as regards the method of adminis-
Tokugawa shogunate, the newly uni-
Goddess. The lord of Choshiu, whose
thought who considered that the unity
which we were passing involved inter-
the most part in the Oyomei School;
ways. All should take up arms against
the sword should be beaten again into
barians should be preserved the laws
of the ancient sages!" Untutored as
codes of the Chow dynasty. Montes-
West, the Unionists laid themselves at
costume is more generally worn by the
pro-foreign leanings: in 1866 he was
the Federals were at first in the ascen-
higher positions under his adminis-
ceremony neglected since the days of
tant a part of the Tokugawa system
placement of the Tokugawa garrison
who later stood forth as the champion
other daimios had joined the Union-
Beyond carrying through these re-
Tokugawarule soonplacedtheFederal-
of the daimios who had taken office
coming anxious over the turn of events
To them the daimios seemed to be
even suspected Sastuma of trying to
showing a disregard of the imperial
which the daimios would not take
were forbidden the city of Kioto
Mikado, but were repulsed with great
under the influence of the Unionists
Choshiu and had to beat an ignominious
Tokugawas, the Shogun died in the
event gave an excuse to the Tokugawas
lord of Choshiu. The seven court
Choshiu were allowed to return and
It needed no persuasion to induce him
Tokugawa samurai objected to this
sudden surrender of the shogunate
suma and Omura of Choshiu. In the
the reformation is clearly expressed in
seven hundred years ago. The first act
long forgotten functions;andceremonies
descendants of many of them were
according to the five grades of the old
the abhorred yettas (who to-day bear
deemed impracticable for Eastern na-
and ordinances of the state have been so
but whenever threatened with foreign
ably united in support of the cabiaet
inherent power of self-government ex-
the present Emperor ascended the
establishment of the Court of Final
annual expenditures and taxation of the
cordingly in February of that year it
the people. Consistent with Eastern
academies of learning for the higher
nation with the knowledge necessary for
carrying out the obligations of its new
environment. Elementary education
provinces to supply them with teachers
In our educational system of to-day,
for entering the higher institutions of
compulsory in all except the elementary
ment's expense. Our eagerness to
considered derogatory. The ethical
The imperial manifesto which formu-
hardly necessary to add that the fruits
of our newly acquired knowledge are
proved more potent than any other fac-
moner into a samurai. Conscription
had obtained in Japan long before the
age isliable tobe drafted forthreeyears'
take his place beside the best of the sam-
a future reward. We preach no Val-
departed heroes; for the teachings of
found elsewhere in the East. We have
was considered by the Chinese sage as
and as late as the year 1630 a female
throne of her fathers. Until after the
considered part of the education of a
we have already seen how, in spite of her
teaching that the wife should always be
woman. Love has never occupied an
have not only confirmed the equality of
does not care to insist uponthem; for al-
womanhood is one involving the whole
for nearly thirty years one bitter drop
eign powers persistently refused to re-
the Tokugawa shogunate. We did not
complain of the low rate ofourcustoms-
sovereignty could not reach. The West-
nation of the law and justice of the
beginning of the Restoration the efforts
was a hard task for us to convince the
West that an Eastern nation could suc-
rope consented to put an end to her
constantly changing with the currents
of subconscious thought. All the ri-
laughed had we not wept. Conservative
strong enough to keep the ship of state
which we dwell to the philosophy of
Buddhism teaching the evanescence of
It is true that the imperative needs of
our sudden transformation from the old
teach the immutability of the soul
preserved the arts and customs of an-
have become lost in the lands of their
ence for traditions. Our conservatism
That holiest shrine of our ancestrism
the Sung dynasty new elements of ro-
dia has dowered us with a wealth of
The expenditure of thought involved
nese philosophy and art a freedom and
of Western methods has not so greatly
had chosen Buddha as the spiritual and
Development along such lines, however,
might at first seem apparent. Our past
experience taught us to choose in West-
Historical Bureau of Tokio University
has already collected an immense quan-
forms as much a part of a gentleman's
As Hakuraku discerned the real
wound before his own. The ardor that
mean to say that the study of European
the rush and struggle of modern exis-
Patronage is no longer even the sign of
become a thing of the past is a matter of
Western market for dubious art goods,
of any accession or reinforcement from
assumes toward everything connected
and art to those of the East. Japan
among us follow the trend of world-
dontailor or the last novelty from Paris
mainingtruetoitselfin spite of the odds
victory over China ten years ago. We
hope that our success overastronger ad-
WEhave beenrepeatedlyaccusedof belligerent designs and expan-
non-aggressive in its nature. The fer-
teachings of Confucius were followed
rendered any overstepping of their
natural boundaries unnecessary. The
pan was when in the twelfth century her
Korean peninsula had probably origi-
numerable monasteries and the casting
shogunate. Acasus belli was not want-
Much less cause of provocation than
would be but confirming already exist-
the Japanese race. Its very key-notes
those of the nation. The lives of those
Their simpUcity and determination are
ing the critical moments of every na-
Theadvocates of peace prevailed, and
the war party resigned from the gov-
obliged to inflict the penalty of death
recognized the full sovereignty of the
Hermit Kingdom and for the first time
and Russia had respected the indepen-
treaty of 1876 by which we recognized
Japan in placing that kingdom beyond
the pale of her dominion. Her con-
family quarrel which had to be settled
for the easy defeat of China at our
cause of all trouble. Tothe enlightened
of her resources were matters of great
China fully recognized the indepen-
which we occupied at the end of the war
mands of the threepowers, andhadonly
seemed a queer proceeding; but we of-
was to hold that place merely in the in-
annex Korea. Protest after protest was
we arose. Among the crags of Liao-
The idea that China might, with the aid
the very moment when she is tightening
The Great Wall of China, the only
of the Trojan war or the Viking sagas
suffering in the throes of the White
long and voluntary isolation from the
age nature has broken loose. Russia
the sword. What mean these strange
tion of the East. Such were not the
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Kakuzo Okakura - The Awakening of Japan Better

Kakuzo Okakura - The Awakening of Japan Better

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Published by Anja Đuričić

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Published by: Anja Đuričić on Feb 04, 2012
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