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Rockefeller Commission Part II the CIA's Role and Authority

Rockefeller Commission Part II the CIA's Role and Authority

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Published by Michael Best
100169

Part II

TheCIA'sRoleandAuthority

Introduction
The legal authority of the Central Intelligence Agency derives primarily trom the National Security Act of 1947 and the implementing directives of the National Security Council. The Act, written in broad terms, is properly understood only against the historical background. Chapter 4 discusses this background. Chapter 5 sets forth the statutory language and describes the legis-

Iative history, the subsequent National Security Council direc
100169

Part II

TheCIA'sRoleandAuthority

Introduction
The legal authority of the Central Intelligence Agency derives primarily trom the National Security Act of 1947 and the implementing directives of the National Security Council. The Act, written in broad terms, is properly understood only against the historical background. Chapter 4 discusses this background. Chapter 5 sets forth the statutory language and describes the legis-

Iative history, the subsequent National Security Council direc

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Published by: Michael Best on Feb 04, 2012
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100169
PartII
TheCIA'sRoleandAuthority
 
Introduction
ThelegalauthorityoftheCentralIntelligenceAgencyderives
primarilytromtheNationalSecurityActof1947andtheimplement-
ingdirectives
ofthe
National
Security
Council.TheAct,writteninbroadterms,isproperlyunderstoodonlyagainstthehistoricalbackground.Chapter4discussesthisback-ground.
Chapter
5sets
forththestatutory
languageand
describesthelegis-
Iativehistory,thesubsequentNationalSecurityCouncildirectives,
andtheadministrativepractice.Chapter6analyzesthescopeoftheCIA'slegal
authority
for
itsactivitieswithintheUnitedStates.
(44)
 
Chapter4
IntelligenceandRelatedActivities
by
theUnitedStatesbefore1947
TheTnitedStates,likeothercountries,haslongcollectedintelli-
gence.UntilWorldWarII,howerer,itsaetivitieswereminimal.
GeneralDwightD.EisenhowerdescribedtheprewarUnited
States
intelligencesystemas"ashockingdeficiencythatimpededallconstruc-tiveplanning.~'
1
t
wasnot
untilthe
Office
of
StrategicServices
(aSS)
wasestablishedduringthesecondWorldWarthattheorganizedcol-
lectionofintelligencebeganona
substantial
scale:althoughtheFBI
wasactiveinLatinAmericainthelate1930'sandduringthewar.EvenbeforePearlHarbor,PresidentFranklin
D.Rooseveltwas
acutelyawareofdeficienciesinAmericanintelligence.lVhencallingonWilliam
J.
Dcnovan,aNewYorklawyerwholaterheadedOSS,todraft
3.
planforanintelligenceservice,hebluntlyobserved:"\Vchavenointelligenceservice."
2
Donovan'sstudyrecommendedthatacentral
unit
be
establishedtocoordinate
intelligence
activitiesand
toprocessinformationforthePresident.Asaresult,OSSwascreated
tooperateincertainmajortheaters.
ThefunctionofOSSwastocollectandanalyzestrategicinforma-tionrequiredbytheJointChiefsofStaffandtoconductspecialop-erationsnotassignedtootheragencil.'s.OtherintelligenceservicesoftheStateDepartmentana
the
militaryservicesweremaintainedtocollecttacticalintelligencedirectlyrelatedtotheirspecificmissions.OSSreliedprimarilyonthreeoperatingstaffs:(1)theSecretIntelligencedivision,assignedtooverseascollection,generallyin-volvingespionage;(2)theX-2division.thecounterespionageunit
which
protected
the
securityofespionageagents;(3)theResearchandAnalysisdivision.whichproducedintelligencereportsforpolicymakers.TheOSSalsoperformedotherfunctions.varyingfrompropagandatoparamilitaryoperations.
1
D.D.Eisenhower.
Crusade
ill
Europe,
p_
~2(1948).
~fl_
H.Ransom.
rt.«
LnrellioenceEstablishment,
p.
61(1970)_
(45)

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