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dynamics, full solutions

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PART 1 MECHANICSCHAPTER 2 MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE

ActivPhysics

can help with these problems:Activities 1.2–1.9Section 2-1: Distance, Time, Speed, andVelocityProblem

1. In 1996 Donovan Bailey of Canada set a worldrecord in the 100-m dash, with a time of 9.84 s.What was his average speed?

Solution

Bailey’s average speed was (Equation 2-1)¯

v

= ∆

x/

∆

t

= 100 m

/

9

.

84 s = 10

.

16 m/s

.

(One canassume that the race distance was known to more thanfour signiﬁcant ﬁgures.)

Problem

2. When races in a track meet are timed manually,timers start their watches when they see smokefrom the starting gun, rather than when they hearthe gun. How much error is introduced in timing a200-m dash over a straight track if the watch isstarted on the sound rather than the smoke? Thespeed of sound is about 340 m/s.

Solution

Suppose the timer stands at the ﬁnish line, 200 mfrom where the starting gun is ﬁred. The timerequired for a signal to travel this distance at speed

v

is ∆

t

= ∆

r/v

= 200 m

/v

. Because the speed of light isso great, the puﬀ of smoke is seen after a negligibledelay, as far as conventional watches are concerned,∆

t

= 200 m

/

3

×

10

8

m/s = 0

.

67

µ

s

.

The travel time fora sound signal, however, ∆

t

= 200 m

/

340 m/s =0

.

59 s, would introduce a signiﬁcant error, if times arerecorded to the nearest hundredth of a second. (For amanually operated timing device, the error due tohuman reaction time is about 0.2 s.)

Problem

3. In 1996, Josia Thugwame of South Africa won theOlympic Marathon, completing the 26-mi, 385-ydcourse in 2 h 12 min 36 s. What was Thugwame’saverage speed, in meters per second?

Solution

¯

v

=∆

r

∆

t

=(26+ 385

/

1760) mi(2 + 756

/

3600) h= 11

.

9mih

≈

5

.

30ms

,

or a little over half the speed of Bailey’s 100 m dash inProblem 1. (Runners usually compute their averagepace, 1

/

¯

v,

which in this case was 5 min 3.4 s per mile.See Appendix C for the appropriate conversionfactors.)

Problem

4. Human nerve impulses travel at about 10

2

m/s.Estimate the minimum time that must elapsebetween the time you perceive a stalled car in frontof you and the time you can activate the muscles inyour leg to brake your car. (Your actual “reactiontime” is much longer than this estimate.) Movingat 90 km/h, how far would your car travel in thistime?

Solution

Suppose the neural path length from the brain to theleg muscles (the quadriceps) is about 1 m long. Thetravel time for nerve impulses is about 1 m

/

10

2

m/s =10

−

2

s

.

A car moving at 90 km/h would travel∆

r

=

v

∆

t

= (90

×

10

3

m

/

3600 s)

×

(10

−

2

s) = 25

.

0 cmduring this interval.

Problem

5. Starting from home, you bicycle 24 km north in2.5 h, then turn around and pedal straight home in1.5 h. What are your (a) displacement at the end of the ﬁrst 2.5 h, (b) average velocity over the ﬁrst2.5 h, (c) average velocity for the homeward leg of the trip, (d) displacement for the entire trip, and(e) average velocity for the entire trip?

Solution

(a) ∆

r

out

= 24 km (north). (b)

v

out

= 24 km

×

(north)

/

2

.

5 h = 9

.

6 km/h(north)

.

(c)

v

back

=

CHAPTER 2

11

24 km(south)

/

1

.

5 h = 16 km/h (south)

.

(d) ∆

r

out and back

= 0

.

(e)

v

round trip

= 0

.

Problem

6. The Pathﬁnder spacecraft landed on Mars onJuly 4, 1997, at which time Mars wasapproximately 190 million km from Earth. Howlong did it take Pathﬁnder’s radio signals, travelingat the speed of light, to reach Earth?

Solution

∆

t

= ∆

r/

¯

v

= (190

×

10

6

km)

/

(3

×

10

5

km/s) =6

.

33

×

10

2

s or about 10.6 min.

Problem

7. Australian Chris McCormack won the 1997 worldtriathlon championship, completing the 1500-mswim, 40-km bicycle ride, and 10-km run in 1 h,48 min, 29 s. What was McCormack’s averagespeed?

Solution

¯

v

= ∆

r/

∆

t

= (1

.

5 + 40+ 10) km

/

(1 + 48

/

60+29

/

3600) h = (28

.

5 km/h)(1 m/s)(3

.

6 km/h) =7

.

91 m/s.

Problem

8. (a) Find a value, good to one signiﬁcant ﬁgure, forthe speed of light in feet per nanosecond(ft/ns)(1 ns = 10

−

9

s)

.

(b) Electrical signals inwires travel at about half the speed of light. Whatis the maximum possible separation between acomputer’s central processing unit and its memoryif the central processor is to be able to get a signalto memory requesting data, and have the datareturn, all in 8 ns?

Solution

(a) (3

×

10

8

m/s)(3

.

281 ft/m)(10

−

9

s/ns)

≈

1 ft/ns.(b) The time for an electrical signal to make a roundtrip over a length of wire, ∆

x,

is 8 ns = ∆

t

= 2 ∆

x/

¯

v

,where ¯

v

is one half the speed of light from part (a).Thus, ∆

x

=

12

¯

v

∆

t

=

12

12

ft/ns

×

(8 ns) = 2 ft

.

Problem

9. You allow yourself 40 min to drive 25 mi to theairport, but are caught in heavy traﬃc and averageonly 20 mi/h for the ﬁrst 15 min. What must youraverage speed be on the rest of the trip if you are toget there on time?

Solution

At an average speed of 20 mi/h for the ﬁrst15 min =

14

h, you travel only (20 mi/h)(

14

h) = 5 mi.Therefore, you must cover the remaining(25

−

5) mi = 20 mi in (40

−

15) min = 25 min =

512

h.This implies an average speed of 20 mi

/

512

h

=48 mi/h. (Note that your overall average speed waspre-determined to be 25 mi

/

(40 h

/

60) = 37

.

5 mi/h

,

and that this equals the time-weighted average of theaverage speeds for the two parts of the trip:(15 min

/

40 min)(20 mi/h) + (25 min

/

40 min)

×

(48 mi/h)

.

)

Problem

10. Taking Earth’s orbit to be a circle of radius1

.

5

×

10

8

km

,

determine the speed of Earth’sorbital motion in (a) meters per second and(b) miles per second.

Solution

(a) Since it takes 1 y for the earth to travel the fullcircumference of its nearly circular orbit,¯

v

= 2

πR/

∆

t

= 2

π

(1

.

5

×

10

11

m)

/

(3

.

156

×

10

7

s) =2

.

99

×

10

4

m/s

≈

30 km/s (an easily rememberedﬁgure). (b) (2

.

99

×

10

4

m/s)

×

(1 mi

/

1609 m) =18.6 mi/s (about 10

−

4

times the speed of light).

Problem

11. What is the conversion factor from meters persecond to miles per hour?

Solution

1 mi/h = 1609 m

/

3600 s = 0

.

447 m/s = (2

.

24)

−

1

m/s

.

Problem

12. If the average American driver goes 5000 mi eachyear on interstate highways, how much less timedid the average driver spend on interstatehighways each year as a result of the 1995 increasein the speed limit from 55 mi/h to 65 mi/h?

Solution

With an average speed equal to the highway speedlimit, ∆

t

= ∆

r/

¯

v

= (5000 mi)

/

(65 mi/h) = 76

.

9 hafter 1995, and ∆

t

= (5000 mi)

/

(55 mi/h) = 90

.

9 hbefore, a diﬀerence of 14.0 h.

Problem

13. A fast base-runner can get from ﬁrst to secondbase in 3.4 s. If he leaves ﬁrst base as the pitcherthrows a 90 mi/h fastball the 61-ft distance to thecatcher, and if the catcher takes 0.45 s to catch

12

CHAPTER 2

and rethrow the ball, how fast does the catcherhave to throw the ball to second base to make anout? Home plate to second base is the diagonal of a square 90 ft on a side.

Solution

At 90 mi/h = 132 ft/s

,

the ball takes 61 ft

/

(132 ft/s) =0

.

462 s to travel from the pitcher to the catcher. (Weare keeping extra signiﬁcant ﬁgures in the intermediatecalculations as suggested in Section 1-7.) After thecatcher throws the ball, it has 3

.

4 s

−

0

.

462 s

−

0

.

45 s =2

.

49 s to reach second base at the same time as therunner. The distance is

√

2(90 ft)

,

so the minimumspeed is ¯

v

=

√

2(90 ft)

/

2

.

49 s = 51

.

2 ft/s = 35 mi/h

.

Aprudent catcher would allow extra time for the playercovering second base to make the tag.

Problem

14. Despite the fact that jet airplanes ﬂy at about1000 km/h, plane schedules and connections aresuch that the 4800-km trip from Burlington,Vermont, to San Franscisco ends up taking about11 h. (a) What is the average speed of such a trip?(b) How much time is spent on the ground,assuming that the actual distance covered by theseveral aircraft involved in connecting ﬂights is6700-km and that the planes maintain a steady960 km/h in ﬂight?

Solution

(a) ¯

v

= ∆

r/

∆

t

= 4800 km

/

11 h = 436 km/h

.

(b) Theactual ﬂight time is ∆

t

= 6700 km

/

(960 km/h) =6

.

98 h

,

so 11 h

−

6

.

98 h = 4

.

02 h is spent on theground.

Problem

15. If you drove the 4600 km from coast to coast of the United States at 65 mi/h (105 km/h),stopping an average of 30 min for rest andrefueling after every 2 h of driving, (a) Whatwould be your average velocity for the entire trip?(b) How long would it take?

Solution

If you stopped 30 min for every 2 h of driving at105 km/h, your average speed would be ¯

v

=(2 h

/

2

.

5 h)(105 km/h)+(0

.

5 h

/

2

.

5 h)(0) = 84

.

0 km/h

,

and a coast-to-coast trip would take (4600 km)

÷

(84

.

0 km/h) = 54

.

8 h

.

However, this is onlyapproximate, because the exact travel time does notinclude a 30-min stop after the ﬁnal segment. (a) Toﬁnd the total time, note that every 2 h 30 min youwould cover a distance

x

= ¯

vt

= (105 km/h)(2 h) =210 km

,

so it would take you 21

×

2

.

5 h = 52

.

5 h totravel 21

×

210 km = 4410 km

.

You could drive theﬁnal 190 km in (190 km)

/

(105 km/h) = 1

.

81 h

,

so thecomplete trip would take 54.3 h. (b) Overall,¯

v

= 4600 km

/

54

.

3 h = 84

.

7 km/h

.

Problem

16. I can run 9.0 m/s, 20% faster than my kidbrother. How much head start should I give himin order to have a tie race over 100 m?

Solution

The older brother can run 100 m in 100 m

/

(9

.

0 m/s) =11

.

1 s

,

while the younger brother takes 20% longer or13.3 s for the same distance (¯

v

younger

= ¯

v

older

/

(120%))

.

Therefore, the slower brother should be given a headstart in time of 2.2 s. (Another way to produce a tie isto give the slower brother a 16.7 m head start indistance.)

Problem

17. A jetliner leaves San Francisco for New York,4600 km away. With a strong tailwind, its speed is1100 km/h. At the same time, a second jet leavesNew York for San Francisco. Flying into the wind,it makes only 700 km/h. When and where do thetwo planes pass each other?

Solution

When the planes pass, the total distance traveled byboth is 4600 km. Therefore, 4600 km =(1100 km/h)∆

t

+ (700 km/h)∆

t,

or ∆

t

= 4600 km

÷

(1800 km/h) = 2

.

56 h

.

(The planes meet 2.56 h aftertaking oﬀ.) The encounter occurs at a point about(700 km/h)(2

.

56 h)

≈

1790 km from New York City or(1100 km/h)(2

.

56 h)

≈

2810 km from San Francisco.

Problem

18. Figure 2-19 shows the position of an object as afunction of time. Determine the average velocityfor (a) the ﬁrst 2 s; (b) the ﬁrst 4 s; (c) the ﬁrst6 s; (d) the interval from 3 s to 4 s.

Solution

From Fig. 2-19, one can determine the positions of theobject at the times indicated, and the averagevelocities from Equation 2-1. (a) ¯

v

= [

x

(2 s)

−

x

(0)]

÷

(2 s

−

0) = (2

.

5 m

−

0)

/

(2 s

−

0) = 1

.

25 m/s

.

(b) ¯

v

= [

x

(4 s)

−

x

(0)]

/

(4 s

−

0) = 0

/

4 s = 0

.

(c) ¯

v

=[

x

(6 s)

−

x

(0)]

/

(6 s

−

0) =

−

2 m

/

6 s =

−

0

.

33 m/s

.

(d) ¯

v

= [

x

(4 s)

−

x

(3 s)]

/

(4 s

−

3 s) =(0 m

−

3 m)

/

1 s =

−

3

.

00 m/s

.

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