Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
3Activity
P. 1
Nacionalizmi Kulturor Dhe Zhvillime Ne Skenen Narrative Konfrontive Te Historise-conf -Of 3 jot

Nacionalizmi Kulturor Dhe Zhvillime Ne Skenen Narrative Konfrontive Te Historise-conf -Of 3 jot

Ratings: (0)|Views: 457|Likes:
Published by herodot_25882
In the last decade, the concept of a new Balkan community emerged as a counterweight to new aggressive and defensive nationalisms. The consequent idea to promote a common history of the region was launched in political and intellectual environments. In this frame, Albanian and Greek scientific institutions have realized scientific cooperation in many areas through bilateral research projects and funding by European community. Unlike the language of television hype and some controversial popular publications and newsppapers, these studies attempt to create a bridge between two neighbor people.
The scientific and public debate in Albania for rewriting the history of Albania and the design of textbooks as a part of a regional history is an issue largely discussed on scientific conferences within and outside Albania. The crucial point of these conferences is that schoolbooks merely reflect the prevalent ideology, as it is diffused through the media, the family and other social institutions where the myth of the origin is especially important. The view that the origin is politically relevant at all is a consequence of a regrettable Balkan prejudice according to which the identity and even the rights of individual human beings should be derived from their ancestors and from myths about the rise of collectives.
Historians’ views are deliberately enlisted to support claims with ‘scientific’ arguments, or exploited by others for political ends. Historical discourse is used also to justify past or present regimes. Especially, archaeological interpretations of the Illyrians are often (though, not always) applied uncritically and in general are still not opened to serious debate. The official history inherited from the communist period states that modern Albanians descend from the Illyrians, an ancient population living in Western Balkans, north of the Greek world. A large part of the historians’ task was to demonstrate the continuity from Illyrians to modern Albanians and also to assert the specificity of Illyrians – as different from Greeks – and the existence of a clear boundary between the two populations. Special care was given to the border area with Greece, where many archaeological discoveries were identified as Illyrian settlements. While the ethnic affiliation of these tribes has long been under discussion by scholars, Albanian archaeologists clearly favored the thesis of their Illyrian background. The Pelasgian theory also, served to establish the ancient and autochthonous character of Albanians, could not be defended against contemporary theories on extra-European origin of the Albanians. Recently, young Albanian archaeologists are seriously challenging the old tradition.
Himara region, once part of Chaonia-the boundary of Illyrians and Epirus people, has been considered as a contested ethno-cultural space by some foreign scholars. Using of Greek and Albanian language today express a complex situation, as a result of the movement of people for centuries, creating the actual “transnational” identity of inhabitants. Therefore, historical past should be perceived as fields of cultural exchange and interaction rather than one-way influence of the dominant national/ cultural group. A shared history of neighbours presupposes spatial continuity –a cultural continuum– but also, more importantly, temporal continuity.
In the last decade, the concept of a new Balkan community emerged as a counterweight to new aggressive and defensive nationalisms. The consequent idea to promote a common history of the region was launched in political and intellectual environments. In this frame, Albanian and Greek scientific institutions have realized scientific cooperation in many areas through bilateral research projects and funding by European community. Unlike the language of television hype and some controversial popular publications and newsppapers, these studies attempt to create a bridge between two neighbor people.
The scientific and public debate in Albania for rewriting the history of Albania and the design of textbooks as a part of a regional history is an issue largely discussed on scientific conferences within and outside Albania. The crucial point of these conferences is that schoolbooks merely reflect the prevalent ideology, as it is diffused through the media, the family and other social institutions where the myth of the origin is especially important. The view that the origin is politically relevant at all is a consequence of a regrettable Balkan prejudice according to which the identity and even the rights of individual human beings should be derived from their ancestors and from myths about the rise of collectives.
Historians’ views are deliberately enlisted to support claims with ‘scientific’ arguments, or exploited by others for political ends. Historical discourse is used also to justify past or present regimes. Especially, archaeological interpretations of the Illyrians are often (though, not always) applied uncritically and in general are still not opened to serious debate. The official history inherited from the communist period states that modern Albanians descend from the Illyrians, an ancient population living in Western Balkans, north of the Greek world. A large part of the historians’ task was to demonstrate the continuity from Illyrians to modern Albanians and also to assert the specificity of Illyrians – as different from Greeks – and the existence of a clear boundary between the two populations. Special care was given to the border area with Greece, where many archaeological discoveries were identified as Illyrian settlements. While the ethnic affiliation of these tribes has long been under discussion by scholars, Albanian archaeologists clearly favored the thesis of their Illyrian background. The Pelasgian theory also, served to establish the ancient and autochthonous character of Albanians, could not be defended against contemporary theories on extra-European origin of the Albanians. Recently, young Albanian archaeologists are seriously challenging the old tradition.
Himara region, once part of Chaonia-the boundary of Illyrians and Epirus people, has been considered as a contested ethno-cultural space by some foreign scholars. Using of Greek and Albanian language today express a complex situation, as a result of the movement of people for centuries, creating the actual “transnational” identity of inhabitants. Therefore, historical past should be perceived as fields of cultural exchange and interaction rather than one-way influence of the dominant national/ cultural group. A shared history of neighbours presupposes spatial continuity –a cultural continuum– but also, more importantly, temporal continuity.

More info:

Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: herodot_25882 on Feb 05, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

10/18/2013

pdf

text

original

 
INHJOINFJ\@J MRF[RWOW KAB \AJFFJ@B IÍ XMBIÍI INWWN[JTBMOIDWOI[JTB [Í AJX[OWJXÍ KAB XAMBIHNTB XAO^ÍWOWB XA^JU[NWBKw) @) Clomn
‖ Uíw angjií {j`b {í `nkab․ fjgwj j` r go{rn b r wjgo{rn ií Cwb~j kab xa{zuj b uwj{j xar`í `jwí) Nmo`n `í j cí|rbxaí` jxa{b uíw `rn dnm{j ~í nxmrxa iíXa~juíwj irm uwjxaj gr|í{ uíw mí{í nkarwj` iknl mrf{rwíx cwbmb) Uwn clíwn{ irm  lnií n~ un xauwbxí xn ã#`rik {í krmbi ií mí{í cnkjxarffji {oií !ji{bwtjx{í b Jx`njfMnknwb 4-5;-75>>& Cn|b{n Xabmrffj*)
Ngx{wnh{)
Ji {ab fnx{ kbhnkb& {ab hoihbu{ od n ibs Gnfmni ho``rij{z b`bwcbk nx nhori{bwsbjca{ {o ibs nccwbxxjtb nik kbdbixjtb in{joinfjx`x) [ab hoixb~rbi{ jkbn {o uwo`o{b n ho``oi ajx{owz od {ab wbcjoi snx fnrihabk ji uofj{jhnf nik ji{bffbh{rnfbitjwoi`bi{x) Ji {ajx dwn`b& Nfgnijni nik Cwbbm xhjbi{jdjh jix{j{r{joix antb wbnfj|bkxhjbi{jdjh hooubwn{joi ji `niz nwbnx {aworca gjfn{bwnf wbxbnwha uwolbh{x nik drikjic gzBrwoubni ho``rij{z) Rifjmb {ab fnicrncb od {bfbtjxjoi azub nik xo`b hoi{wotbwxjnf uourfnw  urgfjhn{joix nik ibsxuunubwx& {abxb x{rkjbx n{{b`u{ {o hwbn{b n gwjkcb gb{sbbi {so ibjcagow  uboufb)[ab xhjbi{jdjh nik urgfjh kbgn{b ji Nfgnijn dow wbswj{jic {ab ajx{owz od Nfgnijn nik {abkbxjci od {bq{goomx nx n unw{ od n wbcjoinf ajx{owz jx ni jxxrb fnwcbfz kjxhrxxbk oi xhjbi{jdjhhoidbwbihbx sj{aji nik or{xjkb Nfgnijn) [ab hwrhjnf uoji{ od {abxb hoidbwbihbx jx {an{xhaoofgoomx `bwbfz wbdfbh{ {ab uwbtnfbi{ jkbofocz& nx j{ jx kjddrxbk {aworca {ab `bkjn& {abdn`jfz nik o{abw xohjnf jix{j{r{joix sabwb {ab `z{a od {ab owjcji jx bxubhjnffz j`uow{ni{) [abtjbs {an{ {ab owjcji jx uofj{jhnffz wbfbtni{ n{ nff jx n hoixb~rbihb od n wbcwb{{ngfb Gnfmni uwblrkjhb nhhowkjic {o sajha {ab jkbi{j{z nik btbi {ab wjca{x od jikjtjkrnf ar`ni gbjicxxaorfk gb kbwjtbk dwo` {abjw nihbx{owx nik dwo` `z{ax ngor{ {ab wjxb od hoffbh{jtbx)Ajx{owjnix‚ tjbsx nwb kbfjgbwn{bfz bifjx{bk {o xruuow{ hfnj`x sj{a ‑xhjbi{jdjh‚ nwcr`bi{x&ow bqufoj{bk gz o{abwx dow uofj{jhnf bikx) Ajx{owjhnf kjxhorwxb jx rxbk nfxo {o lrx{jdz unx{ ow  uwbxbi{ wbcj`bx) Bxubhjnffz& nwhanbofocjhnf ji{bwuwb{n{joix od {ab Jffzwjnix nwb od{bi !{aorca&io{ nfsnzx* nuufjbk rihwj{jhnffz nik ji cbibwnf nwb x{jff io{ oubibk {o xbwjorx kbgn{b) [aboddjhjnf ajx{owz jiabwj{bk dwo` {ab ho``rijx{ ubwjok x{n{bx {an{ `okbwi Nfgnijnix kbxhbikdwo` {ab Jffzwjnix& ni nihjbi{ uourfn{joi fjtjic ji Sbx{bwi Gnfmnix& iow{a od {ab Cwbbm sowfk)N fnwcb unw{ od {ab ajx{owjnix‚ {nxm snx {o kb`oix{wn{b {ab hoi{jirj{z dwo` Jffzwjnix {o`okbwi Nfgnijnix nik nfxo {o nxxbw{ {ab xubhjdjhj{z od Jffzwjnix ‘ nx kjddbwbi{ dwo` Cwbbmx ‘ nik {ab bqjx{bihb od n hfbnw goriknwz gb{sbbi {ab {so uourfn{joix) Xubhjnf hnwb snx cjtbi {o{ab gowkbw nwbn sj{a Cwbbhb& sabwb `niz nwhanbofocjhnf kjxhotbwjbx sbwb jkbi{jdjbk nxJffzwjni xb{{fb`bi{x) Sajfb {ab b{aijh nddjfjn{joi od {abxb {wjgbx anx foic gbbi rikbw kjxhrxxjoi gz xhaofnwx& Nfgnijni nwhanbofocjx{x hfbnwfz dntowbk {ab {abxjx od {abjw Jffzwjni gnhmcworik) [ab Ubfnxcjni {abowz nfxo& xbwtbk {o bx{ngfjxa {ab nihjbi{ nik nr{oha{aoiorxhanwnh{bw od Nfgnijnix& horfk io{ gb kbdbikbk ncnjix{ hoi{b`uownwz {abowjbx oi bq{wn-Brwoubni owjcji od {ab Nfgnijnix) Wbhbi{fz& zoric Nfgnijni nwhanbofocjx{x nwb xbwjorxfzhanffbicjic {ab ofk {wnkj{joi)Aj`nwn wbcjoi& oihb unw{ od Hanoijn-{ab goriknwz od Jffzwjnix nik Bujwrx uboufb& anx gbbi hoixjkbwbk nx n hoi{bx{bk b{aio-hrf{rwnf xunhb gz xo`b dowbjci xhaofnwx) Rxjic od Cwbbm nik Nfgnijni fnicrncb {oknz bquwbxx n ho`ufbq xj{rn{joi& nx n wbxrf{ od {ab `otb`bi{od uboufb dow hbi{rwjbx& hwbn{jic {ab nh{rnf ‖{wnixin{joinf‐ jkbi{j{z od jiangj{ni{x) [abwbdowb&ajx{owjhnf unx{ xaorfk gb ubwhbjtbk nx djbfkx od hrf{rwnf bqhanicb nik ji{bwnh{joi wn{abw {anioib-snz jidfrbihb od {ab ko`jini{ in{joinf/ hrf{rwnf cworu) N xanwbk ajx{owz od ibjcagorwx uwbxruuoxbx xun{jnf hoi{jirj{z ‘n hrf{rwnf hoi{jirr`‘ gr{ nfxo& `owb j`uow{ni{fz& {b`uownfhoi{jirj{z)
 
 
Uíw`gfbkalb
< Ií kbmnkíi b drikj{ fjikj moihbu{j j ilí mo`rij{b{j {í wj gnffmnijm xj ilímrikíwubxaí iknl inhjoinfj|`ntb {í wbln ncwbxjtb nuo kjdbixjtb) Jkbln uíw {í uwo`otrnw ilíajx{owj {í uíwgnxamí{ {í wnloij{ bxa{b uwoioihrnw bkab icn ~nw~b uofj{jmb kab ji{bfbm{rnfb) Iímí{í mrnkíw& jix{j{rhjoib{ xambihowb cwbmb kab xa~ju{nwb uo gnxamíuriolií ií xar`í drxanxambihowb `b uwolbm{btb míwmj`owb kzunfíxab kab {b djinihrnwn icn mo`rij{b{j btwoujni) Ikwzxab icn clran ajubwgofjmb {bfbtj|jtb kab b cn|b{ntb iíuíw`lb{ xí hjfíx wwjxji urgfjhj{b{jikab `nijn b kjxn fjgwntb moi{wotbwxb uourffowb& mí{o x{rkj`b mwjlolib ilí rwí ií `bx kz uourltb d~jilb)Kbgn{j urgfjm kab xambihow uíw {í wjxamwrnw ajx{owjií b Xa~juíwjxí kab anw{j`ji b {bmx{btbxj ulbxb b ajx{owjxb wnloinfb& íxa{í clj{anxa{r oglbm{ j kjxn moidbwbihntb xambihowb gwbikn kab lnxa{í Xa~juíwjxí) Jkblbn {ab`bfowb b {zwb íxa{í ~í {bmx{b{ xamoffowb wbdfbm{olií xaubxajkbofocljib ko`jini{b& nxa{r xjã ubwanub{ icn `bkjn& dn`jfln kab jix{j{rhjoib{ b {lbwnxao~íwowb mr owjcljin moixjkbwoab{ xj ujmb wbdbwj`j) Mlo íxa{í unxolí b ilí unwnclzmj`j gnffmnijm& xjunx {í hjfj{ jkbi{j{b{j kab {í kwbl{n{ b ilbwjr{ krab{ {í grwolií icn unwnnwkaíxj{ b{zwb kab icn `j{b{ uíw mwjlj`ji b gnxamíxjtb) Ujmíun`lb{ b ajx{owjniítb uíwkowbi uíw {ífbclj{j`rnw `b ‖nwcr`bi{b xambihowb‐ wjtbikjmj`b& oxb xadwz{í|oabi uíw ~íffj`b uofj{jmb)Kjxmrwxj ajx{owjm uíwkowb{ clj{anxa{r uíw {í lrx{jdjmrnw wbclj`b{ b mnfrnwn oxb nm{rnfb)Tbhniíwjxa{& {í kaíin{ nwmbofocljmb uíw jfjwí{& ji{bwuwb{oabi xaubxa !bkab uxb lo clj{a`oií*ií `íizwí lomwj{jmb kab ií uíwclj{aíxj bikb irm mn ilí kbgn{ xbwjo| wwb{a {zwb) Ajx{owjn|zw{nwb b {wnxaícrnw icn ubwjrkan mo`rijx{b moijkbwoi ~í xa~ju{nwí{ `okbwib wwlbkaji icnjfjwí{& ilí uourffxj b fnxa{í ~í lb{olií ií Gnffmniji Ubwíikj`ow& ií tbwj {í go{íx cwbmb) Ilí ulbxí b wíikíxjxa`b b kb{zwíx xí ajx{owjniítb jxa{b ~í {í tíw{b{olií tn|akj`íxjií jfjwo-xa~ju{nwb `okbwib kab {abmxoiji xubhjdjmíi b jfjwítb - xj {í ikwzxaí` icn cwbmí{ - kabbm|jx{bihíi b ilí mrdjwj {í ~nw{í `bx kz uourffxjtb) Mrlkbx j tbãni{í lr mrxa{rn |oiíx `bmrdjwji cwbm mr xar`í ~bikwn nwmbofocljmb r jkbi{jdjmrni xj tbikgnij`b jfjwb) Ikíwxn uíwmn{íxjn b{ijmb b mí{zwb djxbtb íxa{í bikb kab xo{ b kjxmr{rbxa`b icn x{rkjrbxj{& nwmbofocí{xa~ju{nwí ií `íizwí {í ~nw{í dntowj|rnw {b|íi b uwblnwkalbx xí {zwb jfjwb) [bowjn ubffn|cbclj{anxa{r& b uíwkowrw uíw {í uwotrnw owjcljiíi b fnxa{í kab nr{om{oi {í xa~ju{nwítb& irm íxa{ínxunm b gn|rnw xambihíwjxa{ kab uíw mí{í nwxzb irm `rik {j ~íikwolí {bowjtb gnxamímoaowb`gj owjcljiíi b jiko-btwoujnib {í xa~ju{nwítb) Moaí{ b drikj{& nwmbofocí{ b wjil xa~ju{nwí uoxdjkolií xbwjo|jxa{ {wnkj{íi b tlb{íw)\oin b Aj`nwíx& ulbxí b Mnoijxí xí fnxa{í-|oií mrdj{nwb b jfjwítb `b Bujwji& íxa{ímoixjkbwrnw icn kjxn x{rkjrbx {b arnl xj ilí anuíxjwí b moi{bx{rnw b{io-mrf{rwowb) Uíwkowj`j jxo{í` j clraíx cwbmb kab xa~jub xauwba ilí xj{rn{í {í ikíwfjmrnw& unxolí b fítj|lbx xí ilbwí|tb uíw xabmrl `b wnkaí& krmb mwjlrnw nm{rnfjxa{ ilíffol jkbi{j{b{j '{wnixinhjoinf' {í gniowítb)Uwniknl& b mnfrnwn ajx{owjmb krab{ {í ubwhbu{oab{ xj drxaí b ilí xamí`gj`j mrf{rwow kabikíwtbuwj`j kab lo xj jidfrbihí b ilíniíxa`b icn bfb`bi{j ko`jirbx b{ijm/mrf{rwow) Ilíajx{owj b uíwgnxamí{ `b d~jilí{ uwbxruo|oi tn|akj`íxj anuíxjiowb tn|akj`íxj-mrf{rwowb& uow `í b wíikíxjxa`ln& tn|akj`íxj moaowb)
 
Azwlb
Uow{nfb bfbm{woijmb xj nj j nfg-xambihn mr xamwrni ilí cn`í b xambihí{nwítb {í wjilxa~ju{nwí ~í mwzblií nm{jtj{b{ji xambihow lnxa{í Xa~juíwjxí lnií xj{b-b mr ikbxabxa xaubxa`b ilí {bikbihí uwo`otj`j {í moidfr{rnfj{b{j{ `b d~jilí{ kab mrf{rwíi b {zwb) N{n `o{jtoabiicn j nxa{r~rnl{rwj inhjoinfj|`ji mrf{rwow j hjfj íxa{í 'ilí mn{bcowj xbfbm{jtb kab b ulbxíxa`b&mr j`ncljin{n kab `niotwj`j frnlií ilí wof lb{jm ií mwjlj`ji jkbi{j{b{j{) Dr~jn binhjoinfj|`j{ mrf{rwow grwoi icn b mnfrnwn - mwzbxjxa{ {wnkj{n{ uourffowb& dbln& kjnfbm{b{ wrwnfb ‘ {í hjfn{ uíwkowbi uíw {í tíw{b{rnw rijhj{b{ji b mrf{rwíx xí ilí gnxamíxjb kab x{j`rfrnw tb{íkjlbi b xnl mo`gí{nwb ]>P) Mlo uíwgíi wjicwj{lb {í mfoibtb {í xohjnfj|`j{ nuo {í `rwbtb {íGbwfjij{ uo {nxa`í ií `biklbi {oií nuo ikoxa{n `ox xab`glb b {zwb& n{o `rwb mnií ~bií kabtn|akolií {í nk`jijx{wolií ilí ulbxb {b go{íx ji{bfbm{rnfb xa~ju{nwo cwbmb) @nklb kabji{bwtjx{n b drikj{ b Mnknwbxí r urgfjmrn ií `lnd{ cn|b{ntb xa~ju{nwb `b ilí {j{rff‖ajcafjca{‐< ‖Xamwj`{nwj j `nka Jx`njf Mnknwb& íxa{í j `bikj`j{ xb Xa~juíwjn kab Cwb~jn irm mnií ~bií mrwwí kz d~jilb {í `jwn‐ xjmrw {í jxa{b mlo jkbln mwzbxowb b ji{bwtjx{íx xí {jl {í drikj{]7P& mrwxb Mnknwbln {abmxoi{b ujmíwjxa{ {í mrikíw{íi< ‖clíwn{ irm lnií n~ un xauwbxí xnã#`rik {í krmbi ií mí{í cnkjxarffji {oií‐)Mrwxb ií xamnffí jix{j{rhjoinfb clíwn{ lnií `í ikwzxab) Jix{j{rhjoib{ xambihowb xa~ju{nwbwbnfj|olií gnxamíurij`b xambihowb ií xar`í drxan `b n{o ao`ofocb cwbmb) Íxa{í b kjxnl{nabwí ~í drimxjoioi `bmnij|`j j uwolbm{btb míwmj`owb kzunfíxab cwbmo-xa~ju{nwb kabdjinhj`btb ib mrnkwji b Ji{wbwbc) Ilí ulbxí b {zwb lnií ií drxaíi b {wnxaícj`jxí mrf{rwowb mrxambihí{nwí{ b {í kz unfítb uo x{rklolií mwzbxjxa{ oglbm{b nwmbofocljmb {í {bwwj{owj{ xa~ju{nw)Ko {í jxa{b b nwxzbxa`b ujmíwjxa{ uwbl {zwb {í uwbxj` uwoioihj`b fjkarw `b wb|rf{n{b{ bx{rkj`btb {í uíwgnxamí{n)Wbtjx{n Nfgnioabffbijhn !go{rbx N) Xujwo* íxa{í ilí {lb{íw dowr` j uíwxa{n{xaí` uíw  unwn~j{lbi b x{rkj`btb `b ujmn{ b uíwgnxamí{n kab kjtbwcj`b{ `jkjx moimfr|joibtb {í unfíxcwbmb kab xa~ju{nwb) Clj{anxa{r wbtjx{n ‖Ubfbcwjij‐ xj kab wbtjx{n bfbm{woijmb ‖Nwmjubfnc‐mwjloi ilí mfj`í {lb{íw tfbwíxj`j kab gnxamíurij`j `b fb{íwxjií kab mrf{rwíi cwbmb krmb`rikíxrnw uíwm{aj`ji b nr{owítb cwbmí uíw b`jcwni{ji xa~ju{nw) Bxbln b Mnknwbxí ‖Bxmjfj& mzar`gíx j `nka‐ nxa{r xj kab wo`nij ‖[í lb{oxa ií jxarff‐ j G) Gfrxaj{ ~í `bw xamnx icn~bikwn mrf{rwowb b Toxmouolíx xauwbaji dnm{ji b {albxa{b ~í tfbwn{ mrf{rwowb irm mwjlolií`rwb& uow rwn gnxamj`j {í uourltb) Ií {í ilíl{íi moaí ilí kbgn{ j clíwí íxa{í j anurw iíXa~juíwj uíw wjxamwj`ji b ajx{owjxí xí Xa~juíwjxí) Ií {bikbihíi uíw {j kaíií ajx{owjxí b nwmbofocljxí& clraíxjxí& ni{awouofocljxí b xambihntbxao~íwowb ií {íwíxj ilí wof moab|jt ií Gnffmni& lnií uíw {r uíw`bikrw `lnd{ moidbwbihn `b ulbxí`nwwlbi b dowhntb {í wbln xambihowb gwbikn kab lnxa{í Xajuíwjxí& ií Gnffmni nuo clb{jr!xaja xa{olhí*) ^í uwbl >::1 bc|jx{oi iln nm{jtj{b{ j uíwgnxamí{ j ajx{owjniítb {í wnloij{ uíw {bmx{b{ kab `íxj`kaíijbi b ajx{owjxí ií xamoffn& j icwj{rw `b jijxjn{jtíi b ajx{owjnibx xíxa~rnw @) [bokowotn) Xjã {abmxoab{ ií fjgwji `b wb|rf{n{b{ uíw`gfjkaíxb {í x{rkj`btb {ímí{jl ib{sowmr& ko krabi tj{b nuo kbmnkn urib {í uíwmrxa{rnw uíw {í frd{rnw kí`ji b gíwí icnx{bwbo{jub{ ajx{owjmb kab `okbfj nr{owj{nw b un{wjnwmnf j djfo|odjxí ajx{owjmb kab uíw {í ndjw`rnw tfbwn{ b kb`omwnhjxí& {ofbwnihíx kab xa~zw{j`j{ ‑oubi`jik‚ {í ajx{owjxí& uíw {í nwwj{rw `jwímru{j`ji n{z mr xo{ `gj|o{íwoi mb~mru{j`j kab nw`j~íxjn ]8P) ‖Íxa{í dlnfn uíw ilí uwjwlb&ií tb{tb{b oglbm{jtb& uíw {n wjtbikoxrw n wjm{azbw ajx{owjií b xa~ju{nwítb ií moi{bmx{ji gnffmnijm kab `í clbwí btwoujni b `bxkab{nw& uíw{bl xmb`ntb inwwn{jtb unwniojkb-moidwoi{n{jtb‐ xauwbab{ N) Tbagjr ];P)
>) Nwmbofocljn unwn kab ií xjx{b`ji kb`omwn{jm
Θκξϋί 
 
 ΰ
ξώσίψβκ 
 
ζοΰοζκΦχ
 
ξςϋΩ
 
γ
 
ξΰγψςσίξ
 
μ 
γ
 
ψπθσςψκχ
) !
Ϋξ
 
υώφψϊυξ
 
ϋκ 
 
ψοηξώΦ
 
υος
 
βθίΰξΰ
*)
Θκξϋί 
 
ξλβκΦδοςΰ
 
θώΩθοώξ
 
οκ 
 
λώφζοκ 
 
μ 
γ
 
υνξϋΠβχ
&

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->