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Pset Complex Variables 2.9

# Pset Complex Variables 2.9

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03/03/2013

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P-SET FOR MA412 DUE 2/9/2012
JOE STAHL
1.
18.3
Let
n
be a positive integer and let
(
z
) and
Q
(
z
) be polynomials, where
Q
(
z
0
)
= 0. Use Theorem2 in Sec. 16, as well as limits appearing in that section, to ﬁnd(a) lim
z
z
0
1
z
n
(
z
0
= 0)If
z
0
= 0, then
z
n
is continuous and nonzero at
z
0
, and is nonzero in a neighborhood of
z
0
(bytheorem 18.2). Then by theorem 16.2, taking
(
z
) = 1 and
(
z
) =
z
n
, we have
(
z
0
) = 1 andlim
z
z
0
(
z
0
) =
z
n
0
= 0, solim
z
z
0
1
z
n
=1
z
n
0
(b) lim
z
i
iz
3
1
z
+
i
Referring to theorem 16.2 with
(
z
) =
iz
3
1 and
(
z
) =
z
+
i
, we see that lim
z
i
(
z
) =
i
·
i
3
1 = 0and lim
z
i
(
z
) =
i
+
i
= 2
i
= 0, solim
z
i
iz
3
1
z
+
i
=02
i
= 0(c) lim
z
z
0
(
z
)
Q
(
z
)Appealing again to theorem 16.2 and taking
(
z
) =
(
z
) and
(
z
) =
Q
(
z
), we see lim
z
z
0
(
z
) =
(
z
0
) and lim
z
z
0
Q
(
z
) =
Q
(
z
0
)
= 0, solim
z
z
0
(
z
)
Q
(
z
)=
(
z
0
)
Q
(
z
0
)2.
18.5
Show that the limit of the function
(
z
) =
zz
2
as
z
tends to 0 does not exist. Do this by letting nonzero points
z
= (
x,
0) and
z
= (
x,x
) approachthe origin. Let
1
be the path that tends to 0 along the
x
axis, that is, the path deﬁned by
z
= (
x,
0),
x
R
. Then the limit as
z
tends to 0 along
1
islim
x
0
x
+
i
0
x
i
0
2
= lim
x
0
xx
2
= lim
x
0
1 = 1
1

2 JOE STAHL
Let
2
be the path that tends to 0 along the line
x
=
y
(deﬁned by
z
= (
x,x
),
x
R
. Then thelimit as
z
tends to 0 along
2
islim
x
0
x
+
ixx
ix
2
= lim
x
0
x
(1 +
i
)
x
(1
i
)
2
= lim
x
0
1 +
i
1
i
=1 +
i
1
i
= 1Since the two limits are not equal, the limit in question does not exist.3.
20.1
Use results in Sec. 20 to ﬁnd
(
z
) when(a)
(
z
) = 3
z
2
2
z
+ 4
(
z
) = 2
·
3
z
1
1
·
2
z
0
+ 0= 6
z
2(b)
(
z
) =
1
4
z
2
3
(
z
) = 3
·
1
4
z
2
2
·
2
·
4
z
1
=
24
z
1
4
z
2
2
(c)
(
z
) =
z
12
z
+ 1(
z
=
12)
(
z
) =1
·
(2
z
+ 1)
(
z
1)
·
2(2
z
+ 1)
2
(
z
=
12)=3(2
z
+ 1)
2
(
z
=
12)(d)
(
z
) =
1 +
z
2
4
z
2
(
z
= 0)
(
z
) =4
·
1 +
z
2
3
·
(2
·
z
)
·
z
2
2
·
z
·
1 +
z
2
4
(
z
2
)
2
(
z
= 0)=2
1 +
z
2
3
3
z
2
1
z
3
(
z
= 0)

P-SET FOR MA412 DUE 2/9/2012 3
4.
20.3
Apply deﬁnition (3), sec. 19, of derivative to give a direct proof that
dwdz
=
1
z
2
when
w
=1
z
(
z
= 0)
w
=1
z
+ ∆
z
1
zdwdz
= lim
z
0
w
z
= lim
z
01
z
+∆
z
1
z
z
= lim
z
0
z
z
zz
(
z
+∆
z
)
z
= lim
z
0
z
z
·
z
(
z
+ ∆
z
)= lim
z
0
1
z
(
z
+ ∆
z
)=
1
z
(
z
+ 0)=
1
z
2
(
z
= 0)5.
20.4
Suppose that
(
z
0
) =
g
(
z
0
) = 0 and that
(
z
0
) and
g
(
z
0
) exist, where
g
(
z
0
)
= 0. Use deﬁnition(1), Sec. 19, of derivative to show thatlim
z
z
0
(
z
)
g
(
z
)=
(
z
0
)
g
(
z
0
)If
(
z
0
) =
g
(
z
0
) = 0, then
(
z
)
g
(
z
)
=
(
z
)
(
z
0
)
g
(
z
)
g
(
z
0
)
. Also note that if
z
=
z
0
, then
(
z
)
g
(
z
)=
(
z
)
(
z
0
)
g
(
z
)
g
(
z
0
)=
(
z
)
(
z
0
)
g
(
z
)
g
(
z
0
)
·
z
z
0
z
z
0
=
(
z
)
(
z
0
)
z
z
0
g
(
z
)
g
(
z
0
)
z
z
0
Thus,lim
z
z
0
(
z
)
g
(
z
)= lim
z
z
0
(
z
)
(
z
0
)
z
z
0
g
(
z
)
g
(
z
0
)
z
z
0
=lim
z
z
0
(
z
)
(
z
0
)
z
z
0
lim
z
z
0
g
(
z
)
g
(
z
0
)
z
z
0
=
(
z
0
)
g
(
z
0
)Because by assumption
(
z
0
) and
g
(
z
0
) exist, this holds true and we are done.