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Cultural Heritage e07

Cultural Heritage e07

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Published by Daisy

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Published by: Daisy on Nov 17, 2008
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06/16/2009

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include designated Ramsar sites and, through the for-mal relationship between
WHC
and the Ramsar Con-vention, there is a great opportunity for recognizing thecultural heritage of other Ramsar sites as culturallandscapes under the
WHC
.
WHC defines three categories ofcultural landscape
The most easily identifiable is the
clearly definedlandscape
designed and created intentionally byman. This embraces garden and parkland landscapesconstructed for aesthetic reasons which are often (butnot always) associated with religious or other monu-mental buildings and ensembles. Atypical exampleis the Cultural Landscape of Sintra in Portugal.The
organically evolved landscape
resultsfrom an initial social, economic, administrative, and/orreligious imperative and has developed its presentform by association with and in response to its natu-ral environment. Such landscapes reflect that process
T
he World Heritage Convention (
WHC
) definesand conserves the world
s heritage by draw-ing up a list of sites whose outstanding natural or cul-tural values should be preserved for all humanity,endeavoring to ensure their protection through acloser cooperation among nations. Anumber ofRamsar sites are also
WHC
sites and a Memoran-dum of Understanding between the two conven-tions, signed in May
1999
, provides a framework forfuture cooperation on their common objectives.Initially, World Heritage recognized sites foreither their natural or their cultural properties, but amajor step was taken in
1992
to encourage the iden-tification of cultural landscapes as a separate cate-gory worthy of protection, making the
WHC
the firstinternational legal instrument to recognize and protectsuch areas. In doing so, the
WHC
acknowledged thatcultural landscapes represent the
combined works ofnature and of man
designated in Article
1
of the Con-vention. They illustrate the evolution of human societyand settlement over time asinfluenced by the physical con-straints as well as the opportu-nities presented by the naturalenvironment.The term
cultural land-scape
embraces a diversity ofmanifestations of the interactionbetween people and their natu-ral environment, often reflectingspecific techniques of sustain-able land use or a specific spir-itual relationship with nature.As of August
2001
, a total of
23
cultural landscapes have beenincluded on the World Heritage List and this modestnumber is certain to increase significantly in the com-ing years. Already five of the cultural landscape sites
World Heritagetook a major step in
1992
to encouragethe identification ofcultural landscapesas a separatecategory worthyof protection.
Hortob
á
gy National Park, a Ramsar site in Hungary, isan outstanding example of the World Heritage Convention
s
organically evolved landscape
.
The WorldHeritage Convention,cultural landscapesand wetlands
   T .   J   O   N   E   S   /   R   A   M   S   A   R
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