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Introduction to SEO

Introduction to SEO

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Published by: Srinivas Reddy Seo Analyst on Feb 06, 2012
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SEO STUDY MATERIAL
February 6, 2012
 
1
 
Created by:
 
Vidhi Mehrotra
 
Introduction to SEO
INDEX
     
 
General SEO information
     
 
I
nternal ranking factors
 
W
eb page layout factors relevant to seo
 
S
ite structure
 
Common seo mistakes
     
 
External ranking factors
 
W
hy inbound links to sites are taken into account
 
L
ink importance
 
L
ink text
 
R
elevance of referring pages
 
G
oogle Page
R
ank
 
I
ncreasing link popularity
     
 
I
ndexing a site
     
 
Ch
oosing keywords
 
I
nitially choosing keywords
 
E
valuating the competition rates of search queries
 
R
efining your keyword phrases
     
 
M
iscellaneous information on searc
h
engines
 
G
oogle
S
andBox
 
S
eo tips, assumptions, observations
 
Creating correct content
 
S
electing a domain and hosting
 
Changing the site address
 
SEO STUDY MATERIAL
February 6, 2012
 
2
 
Created by:
 
Vidhi Mehrotra
 
1.
 
General
SEO i
nformat
i
on
 1.1
 
His
tory
 
of 
s
earch
 
eng
i
ne
s
I
n the early days of 
I
nternet development, its users were a privileged minority and the amountof available information was relatively small. Access was mainly restricted to employees of various universities and laboratories who used it to access scientific information.
I
n those days,the problem of finding information on the
I
nternet was not nearly as critical as it is now.
S
ite directories were one of the first methods used to facilitate access to information resourceson the network.
L
inks to these resources were grouped by topic. Yahoo was the first project of this kind opened in April 1994. As the number of sites in the Yahoo directory inexorablyincreased, the developers of Yahoo made the directory searchable. Of course, it was not asearch engine in its true form because searching was limited to those resources whos listingswere put into the directory.
I
t did not actively seek out resources and the concept of seo wasyet to arrive.
S
uch link directories have been used extensively in the past, but nowadays they have lost muchof their popularity. The reason is simple  even modern directories with lots of resources onlyprovide information on a tiny fraction of the
I
nternet.The
W
ebCrawler project started in 1994 and was the first full-featured search engine. The
L
ycosand AltaVista search engines appeared in 1995 and for many years Alta Vista was the majorplayer in this field.
I
n 1997
S
ergey Brin and
L
arry Page created
G
oogle as a research project at
S
tanford University.
G
oogle is now the most popular search engine in the world.Currently, there are three leading international search engines 
G
oogle, Yahoo and M
SN
 
S
earch. They each have their own databases and search algorithms. Many other search enginesuse results originating from these three major search engines and the same seo expertise canbe applied to all of them. For example, the AO
L
search engine (search.aol.com) uses the
G
oogledatabase while AltaVista,
L
ycos and AllThe
W
eb all use the Yahoo database.
1.2
 
C
ommon
s
earch
 
eng
i
ne
p
r
i
nc
ip
le
s
To understand seo you need to be aware of the architecture of search engines. They all containthe following main components:
S
pecific implementations of search mechanisms may differ. For example, the
S
pider+Crawler+
I
ndexer component group might be implemented as a single program that
 
SEO STUDY MATERIAL
February 6, 2012
 
3
 
Created by:
 
Vidhi Mehrotra
 
downloads web pages, analyzes them and then uses their links to find new resources. However,the components listed are inherent to all search engines and the seo principles are the same.
Spid
er
-
This program downloads web pages just like a web browser. The difference is that abrowser displays the information presented on each page (text, graphics, etc.) while a spiderdoes not have any visual components and works directly with the underlying HTM
L
code of thepage. You may already know that there is an option in standard web browsers to view sourceHTM
L
code.
C
rawler
- This program finds all links on each page.
I
ts task is to determine where the spidershould go either by evaluating the links or according to a predefined list of addresses. Thecrawler follows these links and tries to find documents not already known to the search engine.
I
n
d
exer
- This component parses each page and analyzes the various elements, such as text,headers, structural or stylistic features, special HTM
L
tags, etc.
D
ataba
s
e
-
This is the storage area for the data that the search engine downloads and analyzes.
S
ometimes it is called the index of the search engine.
R
e
su
lt
s E
ng
i
ne
-
The results engine ranks pages.
I
t determines which pages best match a user'squery and in what order the pages should be listed. This is done according to the rankingalgorithms of the search engine.
I
t follows that page rank is a valuable and interesting propertyand any seo specialist is most interested in it when trying to improve his site search results.
I
nthis article, we will discuss the seo factors that influence page rank in some detail.
W
eb
s
erver
- The search engine web server usually contains a HTM
L
page with an input fieldwhere the user can specify the search query he or she is interested in. The web server is alsoresponsible for displaying search results to the user in the form of an HTM
L
page.
2.
 
I
nternal
 
rank
i
ng
 
factor
s
S
everal factors influence the position of a site in the search results. They can be divided intoexternal and internal ranking factors.
I
nternal ranking factors are those that are controlled byseo aware website owners (text, layout, etc.) and will be described next.
2.1
 
W
eb
p
age
 
layo
u
t
 
factor
s
relevant
 
to
s
eo
 2.1.1
 
A
mo
u
nt
 
of 
 
text
 
on
 
a
p
age
 
A page consisting of just a few sentences is less likely to get to the top of a search engine list.
S
earch engines favor sites that have high information content.
G
enerally, you should try toincrease the text content of your site in the interest of seo. The optimum page size is 500-3000words (or 2000 to 20,000 characters).

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