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E WASTE Recycling

E WASTE Recycling

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A comparison of electronic waste recycling inSwitzerland and in India
Deepali Sinha-Khetriwal
*, Philipp Kraeuchi
, Markus Schwaninger 
 A-502, Millennium Park, Akruti Niharika, N.S. Phadke Marg, Andheri, Mumbai-400069, India
Technology and Society Lab, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Lerchenfeldstr. 5, CH-9014 St. Gallen, Switzerland 
 Institute of Management (IfB), University of St. Gallen, Dufourstr. 40a, 4th Floor,CH-9000 St. Gallen, Switzerland 
Received 17 March 2005; received in revised form 21 April 2005; accepted 22 April 2005Available online 3 June 2005
Electronic waste, commonly known as e-waste, is comprised of discarded computers, televisionsets, microwave ovens and other such appliances that are past their useful lives. As managing e-waste becomes a priority, countries are being forced to develop new models for the collection andenvironmentally sound disposal of this waste. Switzerland is one of the very few countries with over a decade of experience in managing e-waste. India, on the other hand, is only now experiencing the problems that e-waste poses.The paper aims to give the reader insight into the disposal of end-of-life appliances in bothcountries, including appliance collection and the financing of recycling systems as well as the socialand environmental aspects of the current practices.
2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
E-waste; Recycling; Hazardous waste management 0195-9255/$ - see front matter 
2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.eiar.2005.04.006* Corresponding author.
 E-mail addresses:
sinha.deepali@gmail.com (D. Sinha-Khetriwal), philipp.kraeuchi@empa.ch (P. Kraeuchi),Markus.Schwaninger@unisg.ch (M. Schwaninger).Environmental Impact Assessment Review 25 (2005) 492–504www.elsevier.com/locate/eiar 
1. Introduction
Electronic waste recycling is gaining currency around the world as larger quantities of electronics are coming into the waste stream. Managing the increasing volumes of e-wasteeffectively and efficiently–in cost and environmental impact–is a complex task. Firstly,special logistic requirements are necessary for collecting the e-waste. Secondly, e-wastecontains many hazardous substances which are extremely dangerous to human health andthe environment, and therefore disposal requires special treatment to prevent the leakageand dissipation of toxics into the environment. At the same time, it is a rich source of metals such as gold, silver and copper, which can be recovered and brought back into the production cycle. This particular characteristic of e-waste has made e-waste recycling alucrative business in both developed as well as developing countries. While somecountries have organised systems for the collection, recycling, disposal and monitoring,other countries are still to find a solution that ensures jobs while minimizing the negativeenvironmental impacts of e-waste recycling. This paper presents a comparison of the end-of-life treatment of electronics in two countries, Switzerland and India.Switzerland was chosen because it was the first country to implement an industry-wideorganised system for the collection and recycling of electronic waste. Having beenoperational for a decade, the Swiss system provides the best opportunity to study theevolution of an e-waste management system. India was chosen as the other country for study because it is not only among the fastest growing markets for the consumption of electronic appliances, but also because it has a large recycling industry and has emerged asa major market for old and junked computers (Agarwal et al., 2003). The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first is to provide a description of the current e-waste management system in the two countries. The second is to compare the twosystems and understand how and why they differ. The comparison is being made only of the overall national situations in each country, looking in each case at only a fewinteresting social and environmental aspects.Data and information for both case studies was collected through personal interviewswith leading experts, senior management of appliance manufacturers as well as highranking government officials responsible for environmental policy. The Indian case studyis based primarily on a pilot study conducted by Empa
in Delhi in 2003–2004 (Empa,2004). The authors assume that the pattern of e-waste handling in the rest of India, mainlythe large urban centres, is similar to that of New Delhi.
2. E-waste recycling in Switzerland
2.1. Background 
Switzerland, with one of the highest per capita incomes in the world,
is also among itsmost technologically advanced countries. The total installed PC base in Switzerland is
Empa—Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Testing and Research.
Estimated GDP per capita for 2003 was US$39,800 according toWorld Bank World Development Indicators,2004.
 D. Sinha-Khetriwal et al. / Environmental Impact Assessment Review 25 (2005) 492–504
3.15 million PCs, which translates into one PC for almost every two persons (World Bank,2004), over 99%of the households have refrigerators and over 96% have TVs (Euromonitor, 2003). Even though market penetration of electrical and electronic goodsis high, the market for new appliances remains strong, with annual per capita spending onICT products topping US$3600, the highest in the world.Switzerland also ranks among the top countries in the world regarding environmen protection. Ranked 7th on the 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (Esty et al, 2005), its score of 1.39 for Environmental Governance
ranks it seventh in the world.Environment concerns as well as consumer awareness regarding environmental issues ishigh, and in a recent study (SAEFL, 2004), 62.6% of the citizens wanted the government  to place more emphasis on environmental issues. The Swiss law on waste management stresses the
 polluter pays principle
and has encouraged the reduction, reuse and recyclingof waste. There are several systems in place for segregating and collection of different kinds of waste such as glass, paper, plastic bottles and aluminium, among others, tofacilitate better recycling. Not surprisingly, Switzerland is the first country in the world to have established aformal system to manage e-waste. Even though the 68,000 tonnes of e-waste collected inSwitzerland in 2003 represented only 2.6% of the waste stream,
it corresponds to a littleover 9 kg/capita
 —substantially more than the 4 kg/capita target set by the EU in theWEEE Directive (EU, 2004). The effective collection of e-waste in Switzerland is  primarily due to the efficient management of the waste stream by two Producer Responsibility Organisations (PROs)—SWICO
and S.EN.S.
Along broad lines, SWICOmanages
 brown goods
 —electronic equipment such as computers, TVs, radios, etc.,while S.EN.S handles
white goods
such as washing machines, refrigerators, ovens, etc.Both SWICO and S.EN.S have more than a decade of experience in managing e-waste,having started their e-waste programs based on the principle of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR), well before it became legally mandatory.Lindhqvist (2000),one of  the pioneers of EPR, defines it as
an environmental protection strategy to reach anenvironmental objective of a decreased total impact from a product, by making themanufacturer of the product responsible for the entire life cycle of the product andespecially for the take back, recycling and final disposal of the product 
.Legislation on e-waste management was introduced into Switzerland only in 1998,when the Ordinance on
The Return, the Taking Back and the Disposal of Electrical andElectronic Appliances
(ORDEA) (SAEFL, 1998) came into force.
High environmental governance scores mean higher quality of environmental regulations, transparency of decision making and existence of sectoral guidelines for environmental impact assessment. See
2005 E nvironmental Sustainability Index
, Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy WorldEconomic Forum(http://www.yale.edu/esi/ ), and
Center for International Earth Science Information Network 
(http://www.ciesin.columbia.edu/ ) for more information.
Calculated on the basis of 2.58 million tonnes of municipal waste generation. From SAEFL statistics ondevelopment of municipal waste in Switzerland, June 2004.
9.25 kg/capita based on an estimated Swiss population of 7,350,000 taken from SAEFL statistics ondevelopment of municipal waste in Switzerland, June 2004.
SWICO—The Swiss Association for Information, Communication and Organisational Technology.
S.EN.S—Stiftung Entsorgung Schweiz.
 D. Sinha-Khetriwal et al. / Environmental Impact Assessment Review 25 (2005) 492–504

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