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Database Model1

Database Model1

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Published by Kagiri Thuita

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Published by: Kagiri Thuita on Feb 07, 2012
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THUITA ISAIAH KAGIRI BIT-035-0078/2011DATABASE SYSTEMSDISCUSS ON TYPES OF DATABASE MODELSDATABASE MODEL
A database model is a theory or specification describing how adatabaseis structuredand used.is the theoretical foundation of adatabaseand fundamentally determines inwhich manner datacan be stored, organized, and manipulated in a database system. Itthereby defines the infrastructure offered by a particular database system.
CATEGORIES/TYPES OF DATABASE MODELS 
Object oriented model Hierarchicaldatabase model The hierarchical data model organizes data in a tree structure. There is a hierarchy of parent and child data segments. This structure implies that a record can have repeatinginformation, generally in the child data segments. Data in a series of records, whichhave a set of field values attached to it. It collects all the instances of a specific recordtogether as a record type. These record types are the equivalent of tables in therelational model, and with the individual records being the equivalent of rows. To createlinks between these record types, the hierarchical model uses Parent ChildRelationships. These are a 1:N mapping between record types. This is done by usingtrees, like set theory used in the relational model, "borrowed" from maths. For example,an organization might store information about an employee, such as name, employeenumber, department, salary. The organization might also store information about anemployee's children, such as name and date of birth. The employee and children dataforms a hierarchy, where the employee data represents the parent segment and the
 
children data represents the child segment. If an employee has three children, thenthere would be three child segments associated with one employee segment. In ahierarchical database the parent-child relationship is one to many. This restricts a childsegment to having only one parent segment.Advantages and disadvantages of Hierarchical model1.
Simplicity:
Since the database is based on the hierarchical structure, the relationshipbetween the various layers is logically simple.2.
Data Security
:Hierarchical model was the first database model that offered the datasecurity that is provided by the dbms.3.
Data Integrity
: Since it is based on the parent child relationship, there is always a linkbetween the parent segment and the child segment under it.4.
Efficiency
: It is very efficient because when the database contains a large number of 1:N relationship and when the user require large number of transaction.Disadvantages of Hierarchical model:1.
Implementation complexity
: Although it is simple and easy to design, it is quitecomplex to implement.2.
Database Management Problem
: If you make any changes in the databasestructure, then you need to make changes in the entire application program that accessthe database.3.
Lack of Structural Independence
: there is lack of structural independence becausewhen we change the structure then it becomes compulsory to change the applicationtoo.4.
Operational Anomalies:
Hierarchical model suffers from the insert, delete andupdate anomalies, also retrieval operation is difficult.
Network model
Definition of Network Database ModelA network database model is a database model that allows multiple records tobe linked to the same owner file. The model can be seen as an upside down tree wherethe branches are the member information linked to the owner, which is the bottom of thetree. The multiple linkages which this information allows the network database model tobe very flexible. In addition, the relationship that the information has in the networkdatabase model is defined as many-to-many relationship because one owner file can belinked to many member files and vice versa.
 
Network Database vs. Hierarchical Database Model Network Database ModelHierarchical Database ModelMany-to-many relationshipOne-to-many relationshipEasily accessed because of the linkagebetween the informationDifficult to navigate because of its strictowner to member connectionGreat flexibility among the information filesbecause the multiple relationships amongthe filesLess flexibility with the collection of information because of the hierarchicalposition of the files Network Database vs. Hierarchical Database Model Network Database ModelRelational Database ModelThe files are greatly relatedInformation is stored on separate tables tiedtogether with other clumps of information Advantages of a Network Database Model

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