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Mathematical Modelling of the Pneumatic Melt Spinning of Isotactic Polypropylene Part II. Dynamic Model of Melt Blowing

Mathematical Modelling of the Pneumatic Melt Spinning of Isotactic Polypropylene Part II. Dynamic Model of Melt Blowing

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Published by Mehdi Naderi
Leszek Jarecki, Andrzej Ziabicki
Institute of Fundamental Technological Research Polish Academy of Sciences Świętokrzyska 21, 00-049 Warsaw, Poland E-mail: ljarecki@ippt.gov.pl, aziab@ippt.gov.pl

Mathematical Modelling of the Pneumatic Melt Spinning of Isotactic Polypropylene Part II. Dynamic Model of Melt Blowing
Abstract A single-, thin-filament model for stationary melt blowing of nonwovens from isotactic polypropylene is proposed. The Phan-Thien and Tanner constitutive equation of viscoelast
Leszek Jarecki, Andrzej Ziabicki
Institute of Fundamental Technological Research Polish Academy of Sciences Świętokrzyska 21, 00-049 Warsaw, Poland E-mail: ljarecki@ippt.gov.pl, aziab@ippt.gov.pl

Mathematical Modelling of the Pneumatic Melt Spinning of Isotactic Polypropylene Part II. Dynamic Model of Melt Blowing
Abstract A single-, thin-filament model for stationary melt blowing of nonwovens from isotactic polypropylene is proposed. The Phan-Thien and Tanner constitutive equation of viscoelast

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Published by: Mehdi Naderi on Feb 07, 2012
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17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   R                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   E                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 S                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  E                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   A                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   R                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 C                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 H                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 &                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  D                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   E                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   V                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   E                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   L                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 O                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 P                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   M                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  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Leszek Jarecki,Andrzej Ziabicki
Institute of Fundamental Technological ResearchPolish Academy of Sciences
Świętokrzyska 21, 00-049 Warsaw, PolandE-mail: ljarecki@ippt.gov.pl, aziab@ippt.gov.pl
Mathematical Modelling of the PneumaticMelt Spinning of Isotactic PolypropylenePart II. Dynamic Model of Melt Blowing
Abstract
 A single-, thin-filamentmodelforstationarymeltblowingofnonwovensfromisotacticpoly- propylene is proposed. The Phan-Thien and Tanner constitutive equation of viscoelasticityis used, as well as the effects of stress-induced crystallisation on polymer viscosity and relaxation time during the processing are accounted for. The predetermined air velocity,temperature and pressure fieldsareassumed,whicharecomputedfordifferentinitialair velocities as well as a fixedinitialtemperature,andapproximatedalongthemeltblowinaxis by analytical fitformulae.Themodelismoregeneralandcanbeappliedtothemelt blowing of nonwovens from other crystallising polymers and other air fields.Theaxial  profilesofpolymervelocity,temperature,tensilestress,pressure,amorphousmoleculaorientation and the degree of crystallinity can be computed using the model presented.
Keywords:
melt blowing of nonwovens; modelling of melt air-drawing; dynamic functionsin melt air-drawing; air jet dynamics in melt blowing.
Introduction
Fundamental equations of the fibermeltspinning processes proposed by Ziabicki[1-4], Andrews [5], and Kase [6-8] in the1960s, further developed and modifiednext by other authors [9-15], are used for the modelling of the pneumatic processin non-woven melt blowing. Computer aided mathematical modelling offers analternative method to costly experimentalinvestigations, which is expected to pro-vide valuable information on the processdynamics and role of individual process-ing parameters. The modelling presentedin our paper concerns pneumatic meltspinning with isotactic polypropylene.The models of the pneumatic process presented by other authors [16, 17] whoconsidered the melt blowing of polypro- pylene non-woven did not take polymer viscoelasticity into account, which is im- portant in the case of polyolefines.Theyreported that the diameters of fibersabove50 µm computed using the modelling arein agreement with the experimental data presented in [18] for rather thick fibers.In melt blowing, the main attenuation of filamentstakesplacenearthespinneret,within a distance range of about 6 cm[18], and next the filamentsarecollectedon a take-up device at a distance of sev-eral tens of centimeters.In the pneumatic process we deal withthe dynamic interactions between two phases – the polymer melt extruded froma single row of orificesevenlydistribut-ed in a longitudinal spinneret beam andconvergent air jets blown symmetricallyfrom a dual slot die onto both sides of  polymer filaments.Thefilamentsandthe air jets interact three dimensionally,where the system exhibits a symmetry plane determined by the row of filaments blown along the centerline of the air jetsfrom the beam. The dynamics of the melt blowing process is controlled by the ve-locity, temperature and pressure fieldsof the air jets. Difficultiesindeterminingthefieldsarerelatedtotheformulationofthe boundary conditions between the phases.Usually, models of melt spinning proc-esses consider the velocity and tempera-ture fieldsseparatelyforapolymerandgaseous medium. Such separation is alsoassumed for the pneumatic process wherethe stationary velocity, temperature, and pressure fieldsoftheconvergentairjetswere predetermined in Part I of the pub-lication series [19] as well as presentedin [20]. Dynamic fieldswerecomputedfor several initial air velocities between30 and 300 m/s at the output of the slots,at a fixedinitialairtemperatureof300°C.We assume that the air conditions can beapproximated by predetermined air jetfieldsformeltblowingprocesseswithasingle row of filaments.Steady-state models of fibermeltspin-ning usually consider the distributionof the velocity, temperature and tensilestress of the spun polymer in a single-filamentapproximationwithapredeter-mined velocity and temperature fieldsof the gaseous medium. In the case of the pneumatic process with a single row of evenly distributed orificesinalongitu-dinal spinneret beam, the single-filamentmodel is well-founded because of the rel-atively low volume occupied by the fila-ments in the spinning space. The volume
Jarecki L., Ziabicki A.; Mathematical Modelling of the Pneumatic Melt Spinning of Isotactic Polypropylene Part II. Dynamic Model of Melt BlowingFIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe January / December / A 2008, Vol. 16, No. 5 (70) pp. 17-24.
density of the filamentsismuchlowethan in the classical processes whereconsiderable aerodynamic interactionstake place between the filamentsinthecylindrical bundles. In the linear, single-row distribution of filamentsinthepneu-matic process, the screening effect in thevelocity and temperature fieldsismuchreduced and can be omitted.The model presented in our paper ac-counts for the effects of viscoelacticity,viscous friction in the bulk of polymer spun at high elongation rates, surfacetension and pressure. The model also in-cludes online stress-induced crystallisa-tion and its role in the polymer viscoelas-ticity and process dynamics.
Model assumptions
In this study, we consider a dynamicmodel of melt air-drawing in convergentair jets in single-filamentapproximation.Such approximation is justifiedformelt blowing from a longitudinal spinneret beam with a single row of orifices.Therelatively low volume concentration of the filamentsinthespinningspaceand periodicity of the filamentsalongthespin-ning beam allow to consider the processin a single-filamentapproximationandreduce the modelling to two dimensions.The symmetry of the convergent air jetsleads to melt blowing along their center-line. The velocity and temperature fieldsin a single filamentplane,normalforthespinning beam, exhibit severe changes atthe air-polymer boundary, accompanied by discontinuity of the material proper-ties, such as density, viscosity, thermalconductivity, etc.
 
18
FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe January / December / A 2008, Vol. 16, No. 5 (70)
The single-filamentmodelassumesthecylindrical symmetry of the fieldsinthe polymer, reducing the problem to twospace variables – the spinning axis
 z 
,and the radial distance from the filamentaxis
. With the thin-filamentapproxima-tion [14, 21], the model for the stationary processes is reduced to one dimension – with a single variable
 z 
. The thin-fila-ment approximation is well-founded because the thickness of filamentsinthe pneumatic process is usually smaller thanthat of fibersobtainedinclassicalmeltspinning [22-24]. The approximationallows to neglect the radial distributionof the polymer velocity
, temperature
, tensile stress Δ
 p
and pressure
 p
. The basis for neglecting the radial distribu-tion of the polymer velocity was found by Ziabicki [2] and Kase [8]. But thereis no reliable basis for neglecting theradial gradient of the polymer tempera-ture. Therefore the average temperatureon the radial cross-section of the filamentis considered a good approximation for thin filaments[14].Radialdistributionof temperature plays a role in the formationof radial structure distribution (molecular orientation, crystallinity). In the model-ling of pneumatic melt spinning, axialdistributions of the radial-average poly-mer velocity, temperature, stresses, etc.are considered.With the single-, thin-filamentapproach,the air jet velocity, temperature and pres-sure fieldscanbeapproximatedbythe predetermined fieldscomputedinPartI[19] because any deviation from the fieldscaused by the presence of a single row of filamentsisnegligible.Stationarypneu-matic melt spinning, used for obtaininguniform fibersinnonwoven,requiressta-tionary boundary conditions for the fila-ments and stationary air dynamic fieldsalong the melt blowing axis, as well asthe stability of the material parameters.
Model equations
A single-, thin-filamentmodelofthesta-tionary air-drawing in melt blowing of nonwovens from crystallising polymer melt is considered, which consists of a set of ordinary, firstorderdifferentialequations for the
 z 
-dependent filamentvelocity
(
 z 
), temperature
(
 z 
), tensilestress Δ
 p
(
 z 
), crystallinity
 X 
(
 z 
) and pres-sure
 p
(
 z 
). The equations result from themass, force and energy balance equa-tions, the constitutive equation of viscoe-lasticity and structure development equa-tions, taking into account amorphous ori-entation and oriented crystallisation. Thedynamic conditions active in the processare given by the predetermined velocity,temperature and pressure fieldsoftheair  jet, along the filament.Thefieldswerecomputed in Part I [19] using a turbulentmodel considering compressible air jetswith various initial velocities and fixedin-itial air temperature at the air slots output.
The mass conservation equation
of the polymer filament[4]
 
 z  z   z  D
=
)()( 4)(
2
 ρ π 
 
 
(1) provides a relation between the local pol-ymer velocity
(
 z 
) and its diameter 
 D
(
 z 
),where
 
=
 
const 
is the mass output per single filament,and
 ρ
(
 z 
) – the local poly-mer density. The temperature-dependentdensity of amorphous izotactic polypro- pylene reads [25] 
[ ]
]273)([1003.9145.1 10)(
43
×+=
 z  z 
 ρ
a
 
,in kg/m
3
(2)and the crystallinity-dependent density inthe two-phase approximation
 
 
[ ] [ ]
ca
 z  X  z  z  X  z  X 
ρ  ρ  ρ 
)()()(1)(
+=
 
(3)where
 ρ
c
– the density of the crystallinecomponent. For isotactic polypropylene
 ρ
c
= 950 kg/m
3
[26], and the temperaturedependence of the crystalline componentdensity is neglected.The force balance equation accounts for the local tensile force balancing the iner-tia, air friction, gravity and surface ten-sion forces in the filament.Thetake-upforce vanishes because the filamentsde- posit freely onto the collector. The axialgradient of the tensile force
 F 
(
 z 
) reads [4,14]
 )()(
 z  p z  D dz dV dz dF 
 zr 
π 
+=
 
[ ]
)()( 2)(4)(
2
 z  D z dz  g  z  z  D
γ  π  ρ π 
 
+
(4)where the terms on the right side are axialgradients of the inertia, air friction, gravityand surface tension forces, respectively.
 g 
– the gravity acceleration,
γ
(
 z 
) – localsurface tension of the polymer. The shear stress resulting from the air friction
 
[ ]
)()()()( 21)(
2
 z  z  z  z  z  p
a f a zr 
=
ρ 
 
[ ]
)()(
 z  z 
a
 
 sgn
(5)depends on the local filamentdiameter 
 D
(
 z 
) and the difference between the ax-ial velocities of the filamentandtheair, – 
(
 z 
) – 
α
(
 z 
).
 f 
(
 z 
) is the air friction co-efficient.When there is a negative difference be-tween the filamentandairlocalveloc-ity,
(
 z 
) – 
α
(
 z 
) < 0, we have a negativeaxial gradient of the friction force whichcumulates the tensile force at the close-to-spinneret part of the filament.This phenomena explains the sharp decreasein filamentdiameterobservednearthespinneret, within a range of 1-2 cm,which is as a consequence of a sharpincrease in the elongation rate under the cumulated air friction forces. There-fore the majority of filamentattenuationtakes place at the short distance of a fewcentimeters from the spinneret [18]. Themechanisms of the attenuation and set-tlement of the filamentdiameterareaf-fected by the dynamic conditions of the process along the melt blowing axis andmay be influencedbystress-inducedcrystallisation, if present. To explain themechanisms, it is necessary to calculateaxial profilesforthepolymervelocity,temperature, tensile stress, amorphousorientation factor, and the degree of crystallinity, taking into account orient-ed crystallisation kinetics.The air friction coefficient
 f 
, commonlyconsidered in the modelling of melt spin-ning and derived by Matsui [27] from ex- perimental correlations, reads
 
α 
 β 
=
 D f 
Re
(6)where
α
,
 β 
are the correlation constants,and the Reynolds number 
 )()()()( )(Re
 z  z  z  z  D  z 
aa D
ν 
=
 
(7)with
ν
a
(
 z 
) – the local kinematic air vis-cosity.Usually, in the modelling of classicalmelt spinning, one assumes
 β 
= 0.37 and
α
= 0.61 [4, 14, 15, 27]. For the melt blowing process we assume
 β 
= 0.78and
α
= 0.61, as suggested by Majumdar and Shambaugh [28] where the value of 
 β 
is typical for the case of the turbulent boundary layer.The air friction force is a function of the local air density
 ρ
a
(
 z 
) and kinematicviscosity of the air 
ν
a
(
 z 
), which dependon the temperature and pressure. The air density along the melt blowing axis
 z 
isdetermined from the relation between thelocal air pressure
 P 
a
(
 z 
) and temperature
a
(
 z 
)

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