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Overview of Child Health Nursing Lecture Notes (pediatrics)

Overview of Child Health Nursing Lecture Notes (pediatrics)

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Overview of Child Health Nursing
Child Health Nursing
 
Focuses on protecting children from
illness and injury 
 
Assists children to obtain optimal levels of wellness
Primary roles of the Pediatric Nurse
 
Care provider
Educator
Advocate
Pediatric Health Statistics
 
Infant Mortality 
o
Number of deaths per
1000 live births during 1
st 
year of life.
 
o
Infant mortality rate is an indicator of how healthy the nation is.
o
 This rate is used to compare national health care to previousyears and to other countries.
o
 There has been a great decrease in the number of deaths overthe past century.
In 1997, 6.9 per 100 live births.
Childhood Mortality
 
For children older than one year, death rates have always been lessthan those for infants.
In later adolescence, there is a sharp rise in deaths.
Injuries; the leading killer in childhood
 
Injuries cause more death and disabilities in children than anydiseases. 
Some examples include:
o
Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death inchildren over 1 year of age.
o
Majority of deaths are due to no use of seatbelts. 
 
Drowning is 2
nd
leading cause of death in boys 1-14; both sexes 15-24years old. Drowning is the 3
rd
leading cause of death for girls 1-14. 
Burns are the 2
nd
leading cause of death from injury in girls and the 3
rd
in boys from 1-14 years old. 
Childhood Morbidity (Illness)
 
An illness or injury that limits activity, requires medical attention orhospitalization, or results in a chronic condition.
Examples:
o
Congenital heart defects
o
Asthma
o
Cerebral Palsy
o
Cystic Fibrosis
Concerned with helping to decrease these statistics as children missschool and other activities when ill.
Advanced Practice roles for nurses in Child health nursing
 
Family nurse practitioner
Neonatal nurse practitioner
Pediatric nurse practitioner
Nurse midwife
Growth and Development
 
Growth : used to show an increase in
 physical size
or a significantchange.
Includes: 
o
Height 
o
Weight 
o
Head circumference 
Development : Used to denote an increase in
skill or ability to finction
.
Measured by:
o
Observing child do specific tasks
o
Parents description of child’s ability
o
Using standardized testing (Denver II screening test)
Principles of Growth and development
 
 
G & D is a continuous process from birth to death 
o
Rate of growth varies at different times
G & D proceeds in an orderly manner
o
Growth from smaller to larger
o
Development: from sitting to crawling to walking
Different children pass through the predictable stages at different rates
All body systems do not develop at the same time.
CNS, Cardiac develops quickly.
Lungs are typically the last to develop.
Development is
Cephalicaudal 
,
which is the 3
rd
principle of G & D. “Headto toe”. 
Development goes from
 proximal to distal,
which is the 4
th
principle. 
Example: Development proceeds from gross to refined.
A child cannot learn tasks until the nervous system is ready.
Neonatal reflexes must be lost before development can proceed.
Factors that influence growth and development
 
Genetics
Gender
Health
Intelligence
Temperament
 
Inborn in all of us
A way of reacting to the world around us
Reaction Patterns:
 
Activity level
o
Level of activity differs widely among children
Rhythmicity
o
Have a regular rhythm is physiologic terms
Approach

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