is most abundant in the creases and flexor surfaces. It is not necessary to remove this after thefetus is delivered.
- fine downy hairs that cover the body of the fetus, esp. when premature. The presence andamount of lanugo aids in estimating the gestational age of preterm infants. The fetus first exhibitslanugo between weeks 13 and 16. By gestational week 20, it covers the face and body. The amountof lanugo is greatest between weeks 28 and 30. As the third trimester progresses, lanugodisappears from the face, trunk, and extremities.
- white pinhead-size, keratin-filled cyst. In the newborn, milia occur on the face and, lessfrequently, on the trunk, and usually disappear without treatment within several weeks.
telangiectatic nevi or hemangioma
- (stork bite) a benign tumor of dilated blood vessels.
- bluish-black areas of pigmentation may appear over any part of the exterior surface of the body. Commonly noted whose ethnic origins are in the Mediterranean area, LatinAmerica, Asia, or Africa
Apgar (know scoring)
- a system for evaluating an infant’s physical condition at birth. Theinfant’s heart rate, respiration, muscle tone, response to stimuli, and color are rated at 1 min, andagain at 5 min after birth. Each factor is scored 0,1, or 2; the maximum total score is 10.Interpretation of scores: 7 to 10, good to excellent; 4-6, fair; less than 4, poor condition. A lowscore at 1 min is a sign of perinatal asphyxia and the need for immediate assisted ventilation.Infants with scores below 7 at 5 min should be assessed again in 5 more min; scores less than 6 atany time may indicate need for resuscitation. In depressed infants, a more accurate determinationof the degree of fetal hypoxia may be obtained by direct measures of umbilical cord oxygen,carbon dioxide partial pressure, and pH.
Silverman (respiratory function test)
- 5 evaluations – what are they? – (handout)1. Upper chest. 2. Lower chest. 3. Xiphoid retractions. 4. Nares dilation.5. Expiratory grunt. Graded 0, 1, 2
- withdrawal bleeding after birth, a scant vaginal discharge that reflects the physiological response of some female infants to an exposure to high levels of maternal hormonesin utero.
tonic neck reflex
- (“fencing”) –with infant facing left side, arm and leg on that side extend;opposite arm and leg flex (turn head to right, and extremities assume opposite postures).
- high in?-breast fluid that may be secreted from the second trimester of pregnancyonward but that is most evident in the first 2 to 3 days after birth and before the onset of truelactation. This thin yellowish fluid contains a great number of proteins and calories in addition toimmune globulins.
- from birth through 28h day of life.
– normal? Why higher in neonate?- normal <5 mg.dl. (usually drop to 1 mg/dl). Neonatal jaundice occurs because the newborn has a higher rate of bilirubin production and thereabsorption of bilirubin from the neonatal small intestine is considerable.