All clients admitted to a hospital or psychiatrictreatment will have a multiaxis diagnosis from the DSM-IV-TR.
Period of Enlightenment and Creation of MentalInstitutions
In the 1790’s Phillippe Pinel in France and Willian Tukesof England formulated the concept of
as a saferefugee or haven offering protection at institutionswhere people had been beaten, whipped, and starvedfor their mental illness.
In the US, Dorothea Dix (1802-1887) began a crusadeto reform the treatment of mental illness after a visit tothe Tukes’ institution in England. She was instrumentalin opening 32 state hospitals that offered asylum to thesuffering.
100 years after establishment of the first asylum, statehospitals were in trouble. Attendants were accused of abusing the residents, the rural locations of thehospitals were viewed as isolating patients from theirfamilies and homes, and the phrase
tookon a negative connotation.
Development of Psychopharmacology
In the 1950’s the development of
were used to treat mental illness.
Chlorpromazine (Thorzine), an antipsychotic drug, andlithium, an anti-manic agent, were the first drugs to bedeveloped.
10 years later, monoamine oxidase inhibitors,haloperidol (Haldol), an antipsychotic; tricyclicantidepressants; and antianxiety agents(benzodiazepines), were introduced.