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Enabling Objectives

INTRODUCTION

ANALYZING BEAMS

Definition and Function of Beams

Figure 2. Common Materials and Sections Used for Beams

Identifying Types of Beams

Support Types

Pictures Showing
Support Types

Load Types

Figure 4. Beam Load Types

Static
Determinacy

Defining and Calculating Load-Shear-Moment Relationships

Figure 5. Load-Shear-Moment Relationships

Figure 6. Determine Vertical Shear Force at Any Point Along Beam

Figure 7. Shear Force

Bending Moment

Sign Convention
For Bending
Moment

Figure 9. Overhang Beam

Figure 10. Shear and Moment at Support B

Drawing Shear and Moment Diagrams

Procedures to
Draw Diagrams

Figure 11. Drawing Shear & Moment Diagrams

Figure 12. Shear Diagram for the Overhang Beam in Algebraic Terms

Figure 13. Moment Diagram for the Overhang Beam in Algebraic Terms

Beam Diagrams - Key Points

Basic Shear and Moment Diagrams

Figure 17. Cantilever Beam Subjected to Four Types of Load

Figure 18. Simple Support Beam Subjected to Three Types of Load

Beam Diagrams - Superposition

Example 4: Beam Diagrams by Superposition

Figure 19. Cantilever Beam Loads

Figure 20b. Uniform Load

Figure 21a. Cantilever Beam with Concentrated Load

Figure 22. Combined Individual Cases

Calculating Beam Stresses

Flexural (Bending)
Stress

Figure 26. Plank Beams

Example 5: Flexural and Shear Stresses in a Simple Overhang
Beam

Figure 27. Simple Overhang Beam

Example 6: Flexural Stresses in a Simple T-Beam

Figure 29. Cross Section of a Simple T-Beam

Calculating Beam Deflection

Standard Tables
For Beam
Deflection

Conjugate Beam
Method

Example 7: Beam Deflection

Figure 31. Deflections at Two Load Points (a & b)

Figure 33a. Moment Diagram for Actual Beam

Figure 33b. Loading Diagram for Actual Beam

Diagram

Finding and Using Beam Formulas

Beam Formula
Work Aids

Using Beam Formula
Work Aids

Superposition of
Beam/Load Cases

Example 9: Superposition of Beam/Load Cases

Figure 35. Superposition of Beam/Load Cases

Figure 37. Example 10 Beam

Figure 39b. More Beam Load Cases

ANALYZING COLUMNS

Introduction

Definition and Function

Figure 40. Typical Structural Columns

Identifying Column Materials and Sections

Figure 41. Typical Column Sections

Column Analysis and Considerations

Identifying Column Types

Column Type
Based on
Slenderness

Figure 44a. Types of Columns Based on Slenderness

Column Type
Based on
Eccentricity

Figure 44b. Types of Columns Based on Eccentricity

Column Type
Based on Nature
of Loading

Figure 44c. Typical Loadings for Beam-Columns

Calculating Column Loads and Stresses

Ultimate
Compressive Load

Compressive Yield
Load

Critical (Buckling)
Load

Failure Load

Factor of Safety

Allowable
Load/Capacity

Example 11: Column Loads and Stresses

Figure 47. Alternate Arrangements of Column Cross-Section

Calculating Combined Bending and Axial Loading

Beam-Columns

Figure 48. Biaxial Bending about x and y Axes of the Column Cross Section

Eccentrically
Loaded Columns

Example 12: Combined Axial Load and Bending in Column

Figure 50. Eccentrically Loaded Steel Column

ANALYZING FOOTINGS

Identifying and Defining Types of Footings

Figure 51. Types of Footings

Analysis Procedure

Identifying and Defining Applied Loads

Figure 52. Loads Acting on a Support Footing

Identifying and Defining Eccentric Loads on Footings

Figure 53. Footing Loads

Identifying and Defining Soil-Bearing Pressure on Footings

Centered/Concentric Load

Figure 54. Centered/Concentric Load

Combined Vertical
Load and Moment

Figure 55. Combined Vertical Load and Moment

Figure 56. Vertical Load and Moment

Critical
Eccentricity

Partial
Compression

Example 13: Soil-Bearing Pressure for a Square Footing

Identifying and Defining Stability Ratio on Footings

Figure 60. Stability Ratio

Identifying and Defining Moment and Shear on Footings

Figure 61. Moment and Shear on Footings

Figure 63b. Wall and Footing Support Loads (Shear at Critical Section)

SUMMARY

WORK AIDS

Figure 65. Work Aid 2, Beam with Loads

Figure 67. Work Aid 3, Beam with Uniform Load

Figure 72. Work Aid 6, Beam with Uniform and Concentrated Loads

Figure 73. Loads

Figure 77. Work Aid 8, Bending Moment and Shear Diagram

Figure 79. Beam

Figure 80. Repeat of Figure 37. Work Aid 12 Beam

Figure 83b. Repeat of Figure 39b More Beam Load Cases

Figure 85. Work Aid 15, Calculating Column Load and Stresses

PRACTICE PROBLEMS

Practice Problems 1

GLOSSARY

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