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A. Chakravarty et al- Factors Affecting Shock Sensitivity of Energetic Materials

A. Chakravarty et al- Factors Affecting Shock Sensitivity of Energetic Materials

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CP620,
Shock Compression
of
Condensed Matter
-
2001
edited
by M. D.
Furnish,
N. N.
Thadhani,
and Y.
Horie
©
2002
American Institute
of
Physics
0-7354-0068-7/02/$
19.00
FACTORS AFFECTING SHOCK SENSITIVITY OF ENERGETICMATERIALS
A. Chakravarty, M.J.
Gifford,
M.W. Greenaway,W.G. Proud,J.E. Field
PCS,Cavendish Laboratory,
Madingley
Road,Cambridge,
CBS
OHE.
UK.
Abstract.
Anextensive studyhasbeen carriedoutintotherelationships betweentheparticle sizeof acharge, the density to which it is packed, the presence of inert additives and the sensitivity of the charge
to
different
initiating shocks.
The
critical parameters
for two
different
shock regimes have been
found.
The long duration shocks are provided by a commercial detonator and the short duration shocks areimparted using laser-driven
flyer
plates. It has been shown that the order of sensitivity of charges to
different
shock regimes varies. In particular,
ultrafme
materials have been shown to be relativelyinsensitive to long duration low pressure shocks and sensitive to short duration high pressure shocks. Thematerials that have been studied include HNS,
RDX
and PETN.
INTRODUCTION
When a shock-wave is incident on an energeticcharge, a number of parameters must be consideredwhen determining whether detonation is likely to
result.
The nature of both the charge and the shock-waveareimportant.
In
a
very
simplistic way a shock can bedescribed by its pressure and duration (ignoringshock
profile
at this stage). For a shock to causeinitiationitmustbecapableofcreating
sufficient
chemical reaction to sustain it. Acting against thischemical reaction, to weaken the shock, are
rarefactions
due to theexpansionof thematerialwhich,
due to the
subsonic
flow
of the
material
following the
shock,
will
eventually reach
the
front.
The relationship between the required pressure andduration
for
initiation
is
such that
the
shock levelmust be high enough to cause
sufficient
reaction tosustain
the
shock
beforethe
initial shock decays.
If
this criterionis metthenadetonation will propagate
in
the
charge.The magnitude and duration of a shock required
for
a particular charge to be initiated are dependenton the microstructure and chemistry of the charge.
The
microstructure
is
crucial
in
determining
the
nature of
hot-spots
that are created in the charge andthechemistry is important in determining theresponse of the material to the presence of the hot-spots.
A
large number of researchers have attempted toelucidate the role of hot-spots in the shock initiation
of
detonation.
The
reviews
of the
field
given
by
Khasainov
et
al.^
and
Dremin
2
give
a
very completeaccountof the
state
of theliteratureonthis subject.The present study has focussed on varying thedensity and grain size of the charges and the natureof the imparted shock in an attempt to alter the hot-spot parameters and so determine the critical
factors
associated with them.
MATERIALS USED
Both the pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) andcyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) were supplied
in ultrafine
and
conventional
forms
by ICI
NobelEnterprises, Ardeer, U.K. The
ultrafine
powdershave a primary particle size of
~1
pmand areproduced by a proprietary process. The
1007
 
conventional
grain
material has aparticle
size
ofabout
180
urn.
The
hexanitrostilbene (HNS) used
in these
studies was supplied by DERA,
Fort
Halstead andcame originally
from
Bofors AB in Sweden. The
ultrafme form
is
known
as HNS IV and has a
grain
size
of less than a
micron.
The HNS IV wassupplied both
in apure
form
and withpressing
additives.
In the
case
where zinc
stearate
and
graphite
were
added to act aspressingagents, the
additives contributed approximately 1% to the total
mass
of thematerial.The
coarse
grain
HNS
(knownas HNS II) had a grain
size that
was typically of the
order of
25
um.
EXPERIMENTAL
METHOD
Two principal experimental methods were
used
during the course of the
researchdescribedhere.
For
the imparting of
relatively long
duration shocks,a gap testing
geometry
was used.
When short high
pressure shocks
were
required
a system for
generating laser-driven
flyer
plates
was
used.
Long Duration Shocks
The
charges
used
in these experiments wereincrementally
pressed
columns of
either
RDX orPETN.
The confinements
used
were 25 mm
long
25mm
diameter
PMMA
cylinders.The explosivecolumns
were 5 mm in
diameter.Thedonorcharge used
during
theexperimentswas a PETN
boosted
C8 detonator
which
was
found
to
have
a reliable output in
terms
of the shock
pressureproduced.
0.3
The gaps that
wereused
to mediate the shockpressure
were
discs of
PMMA
placed
between
thedetonator
and the
surface
of the column. A
thin
layer
of silicone grease was used between all three
components
of the
test
in
order
to aid the
reproducibility
of the testing. PVDF gauges placedbetween
the
PMMA
gap andanotherpiece of
PMMA
in the charge
position
were
used
to obtain
an indication of the shock
pressure
during a
test.
A
typical trace
from
a PVDF gauge is
shown
in
figure1.
Both
photographic
streak
recording
and brass
witness
plates were
used
todeterminewhether adetonation
event
hadoccurred duringa
test.
Short Duration
Shocks
TheHNS
charges
used for the
short-durationshocks
were 5 mm
long,
5mm
diameter cylinderscontained within
25 mm
diameter
PMMAconfinements. The
chargeswere
incrementally
pressed
into theconfinements.The
surface
of the
charges was
polished
with
2500 grade
SiC paper to
providea
consistent
surface
finish.
The quality of
the
surfacefinish
was
checked
using a
SloanDekTak
II surface
profilometer.
FIGURE 1.
Typical trace
from
a PVDF
gauge.
0 0.5 1.0Distance
along scan
(mm)
FIGURE
2. Profilometer
traces
from
the
Sloan DekTak
II.
The
laser-driven
flyer
launching
system is
described
fully
in
previous
publications
from
this
laboratory-*"^
and
details
can
also
be
found
in the
paperby
Greenaway
et al.
in
these proceedings.
The
system uses
a
Nd:YAG
laser to accelerate
flyers
1 mm in
diameter
and 5 umthickto velocitiesup
to 8 mm
us'
1
.
On impactthese
flyers
provide
intense shocks
lasting approximately1 ns. The1008
 
energy of the pulseimpartedto the
flyer
is
controlled
in
order
to
determine
the velocity of the
flyer.
Energies between
50 and 400
ml
were
accessed
during this study.A
Hadland
Imacon790 high
speed
image
converter
camera was
used
to
provide streakphotographs
of the
initiation
events. The camera
was
triggered
from
the signal that
fired
the
laserwith a suitable delay
added.
These
photos
allowedcalculation of the
position
of the initiation
eventwithin the column.
RESULTS
Long duration shocks
Figure
3
shows
the
results
of the
experiments
which
used long duration shocks
in a gap
test
geometry.
These
experiments
were
carried
out on
PETN
and RDX in
both
ultrafme
and conventional
grain
sizes.
As can be
seen
the density was
also
varied in the RDX study in order to
determine
the
effect
that increased porosity
has on the sensitivityof the
charges.
Although there
is some overlap inthe
go/no
go
gaps
for
some
of the
densities,
in
general
the
experimental reproducibility
was
extremely
high.
Ultrafine
go
o
Ultrafine
no go
Conventional
go
n
Conventionalno go
60 70 80
Density
(%TMD)
FIGURE 3.
Results
of gap
testing
onRDX.
Thresholds
forPETN
arealso indicated.
The
ultrafme
PETN at a
density
of 90% TMD
had a
critical
gap of 3.68 ± 0.01 mm
compared witha gap of 5.57 ±
0.02
mm for the
conventional
grain
size material. These wereshownto
correspond
to
shock
pressures
of approximately 4.1 and 2.1 GPa
as measured using the PVDF
gauges described
previously.
The gap required to
prevent
initiation
of the
RDX
charges increased
significantly in
both
the
ultrafme
and
conventional materials
as the porosity
increased,
but the
ultrafine
material
was consistentlyless sensitive to
this
form
of
initiation.
Short
Duration
Shocks
The
findings
of this study into
initiation
by
shortduration
shocks
have
been explained
insome
detail
in
the
paper
by Greenaway
etal.
within
theseproceedings.
The results of
this
studyinvolving
laser-driven
flyer
plates
are
that
HNS II
could
not
be
initiated
with very
short duration shocks
at the
energies available in that system, but that the HNS
IV
could bereadily
initiated
with a go/no go
threshold
of
about
250 mJ of
laser
pulseenergy.
The presence
of zinc
stearate
and
graphite
as
additives
in
some
of the HNS IV
acted
to
increase
the
flyer
energy
required
for
initiation
of the
charges
to approximately
350
mJ.
•^
:
;
0
*
0o
HNSJV
5
'
:
70%TMD
&
*
__
&..._..„
A A
£
up
In
al
*
"•-pa
D
D
D
n
D
D
D
O
D
D
HNSIV+addfives
65% TMD
.......
7_..
..
.....J
......v
y.
..
:
VV
:
HNS II
78%TMD
:
(Densfes
are only approximate)
FIGURE 4.
Results
of the laser-driven
flyer
tests.
Filled
objectsdenote
a
"go"
result.
The
results
of
this
study
indicate
a
strongcorrelation between pressing density
and sensitivity.
Unfortunately
due to the
nature
of the
pressing
technique
employed
and the
powder,
it was
difficult
toaccurately
reproduce
agiven densityof
charge.Within the limits of the study, it can be
said
that the
charges
pressed
to a density of 65% TMD appear to
be less
sensitive
than those
pressed
to 70% TMD.1009

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