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Hui-Hui Dai and Xiaojun Fan- Asymptotically Approximate Model Equations for Weakly Nonlinear Long Waves in Compressible Elastic Rods and their Comparisons with Other Simplified Model Equations

Hui-Hui Dai and Xiaojun Fan- Asymptotically Approximate Model Equations for Weakly Nonlinear Long Waves in Compressible Elastic Rods and their Comparisons with Other Simplified Model Equations

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AsmptoticaUyApproximateModelEquationsforWeaklyNonlinearLongWaves
in
CompressibleElasticRodsandTheirComparisonswithOtherSimplifiedModelEquations
HUI-HUIDAIXIAOJUNFAN
DepartmentofMathematics.CityUniversityofHongKong.
83
Iat
CheeAvenue.Kowloon.HongKong
(Received10December2002;accepted1February2003)
Dedicatedto
R.
WOgdenontheoccasionofhis60thbirthday.
Abstract:
\\eakly
nonlinearlongwavesinacylindricalelasticrodcomposedofacompressibleMumaghanmaterialarestudiedinthispaper:Fourtypesofmodelequationsdescribingnonlineardispersivewavesarederived.twoofwhichcansatisfythelateralboundaryconditionsasymptotically.Thedispersionrelationsforthesetypesofmodelequationsareobtainedandcomparedwiththeexactdispersionrelationfromthethree-dimensionalelasticity.Solitarywavesolutionsofthefar-fieldequationsofthesemodelsareshown.
By
comparisonofthesefourtypesofmodel,someconclusionsabouttheiradvantagesanddisadvantagesaredrawn.
KeyWords:.
Modelequations,nonlinearwaves,elasticrods
1.INTRODUCfION
Arodisathinstructurewhoselongitudinaldimensionismuchlargerthanitstwolateraldimensions.Suchstructuresarecomponentsofmanyobjects,suchasbloodvesselsinahumanbodyandbeamsonabridge,etc.Thus,itisimportanttostudythedeformationsofelasticrods.Linearwavepropagation
in
elasticrodshasbeenusedforthedeterminationofmaterialpropertiesandflawdetections.Nonlinearwaves(inparticular,solitarywaves)canstillbedetectedafterpropagatingforalongdistance,sincetheycanresistdissipativeeffectsverywell.So,moreaccurateresultswillbeachievedifnonlinearwavesareused.Inparticular,foragas/oilpipeline,whichisofalongdistance,itisnotrealistictouselinear.wavestodetectcracks,sincetheywillbedissipatedveryquickly.
On
theotherhand,solitarywaves,whicharelocalizedandhaveaconcentrationofenergy,canpropagateforaverylongdistancewithoutdistortion.Thus,itismuchmorepractical(aswellaseconomical)tousesolitarywavestolocatecracksinagas/oilpipeline.
We
pointoutthatsolitarywavesinelasticrodshavebeengeneratedinexperiments;see[1].
MathematicsandMechanicsafSolids
9:
61-79,2004
e
2004SagePublicationsDOl:
10.1177/1081286503035199
fromtheSAGESocialScienceCollections.AllRightsReserved.
 
62H.-H.DAIandX.FANForanelasticrod,itisreasonabletouseaone-dimensionalmodeltodescribeitsdeformations.Usually,therearetwowaystoobtainrodtheories.Oneistheso-calleddirectrodtheorywhichmodelsarodasadirectedcurvewhichconsistsofacurverepresentingtherodaxisandabi-directorfieldmodelingtherodcrosssections.Anotheristheso-calledderivedrodtheorywhoseequationsarederivedfromthethree-dimensionalfieldequationsbyintroducingacertainapproximationwhichisbasedonthegeometryofarod-likebody.Here,weshallusesomederivedrodtheoriestostudynonlineardispersivewaves.Touseone-dimensionalmodelequationstostudynonlineardispersivewavesinelasticrods,itisnecessarytointroduceproperapproximations.Twooften-usedassumptionsare(1)theNavier-Bernoullihypothesis,whichassumesthatduringthedeformationtheplanecrosssectionsremainplanarandnormaltotherodaxis,and(2)theLovehypothesis,whichassumesthattheradialstrainisproportionaltotheradialstrain.Adrawbackofthefirstassumptionisthattheboundaryconditionsonthelateralsurfacecannotbesatisfiedexactlyorasymptotically.Nevertheless,sincethemainpulseismainlyawavepropagatingalongthelongitudinaldirectioninthewaveguide(rod)notasurfacewave,suchadrawback,whilenotdesirable,isstillacceptable.Manyauthorsusedtosuchanapproximationtostudybothweaklynonlinearwaves[2-4]andstronglynonlinearwaves[1,5-8]inelasticrods.However,usingtheLovehypothesisresultsinasinglegoverningequation.Obviously,forthepresentproblemtherearetwoindependentdeformationsintheradialandaxialdirectionsrespectivelyandtwogoverningequationsarerequired.So,thesecondassumptionmayresultinbothqualitativeandquantitativeerrors.In[9-11],bothassumptionsareusedtoderivethemodelequations.WithoutusingtheLovehypothesis,CohenandDai[12]derivedtwocoupledequationsofmotionforthecompressiblerodandasymptoticsolutionswereobtainedbythereductiveperturbationprocedure.Porubovetal.[13]proposedarefmedrelationbetweentheradialdisplacementandtheaxialonetoreplacetheLovehypothesisandtheNavier-Bernoullihypothesis,butforthisrefinedmodeltheboundaryconditionsstillcannotbecompletelysatisfiedevenforlinearterms.Samsonovetal.[14]andPorubovetal.[15]gaveupboththeaboveassumptionsandderivedthemodelequationsfornonlineardispersivewavesbysubstitutingsomeasymptoticexpansionsintothelateralboundaryconditions.However,someseriousalgebraicerrorsintheirderivationsledthemodelequationstobeunacceptable.Recently,DaiandHuo[16]derivedthegoverningequationsdescribingnonlineardispersivewavesinanincompressibleelasticrodbyintroducingseveralasymptoticexpansionsfortheaxialandradialdisplacements.Theboundaryconditionscanbewellsatisfiedfromtheasymptoticpointofview.Inthispaper,weconsidernonlineardispersivewavesinacylindricalelasticrodcomposedofa
compressible
Mumaghanmaterial[17].Weshallderivefourtypesofmodelequations.Firstly,withoutusinganyhypothesis,wederivethegoverningrodequationsfromthethree-dimensionalelasticitybyareductionthroughbothseriesexpansionsandasymptoticexpansions.Asaresult,asystemoffiveone-dimensionaldifferentialequationsisobtained.Secondly,aregularperturbationisusedforthesefiveequations,whichleadstotwosimplifiedmodelequations.Tomakecomparisons,thirdlyweemploytheNavier-Bernoullihypothesistoouroriginalproblemandobtaintwogoverningmodelequations.Finally,weadoptboththeNavier-BernoullihypothesisandtheLovehypothesistoderiveasinglegoverningequation.Toexaminethesemodelequations,wecomparethedispersionrelationswiththatoflinearwavesinathree-dimensionalelasticcylinder.Finally,inthefarfield,theKorteweg-de
 
ASMPTOTICALLYAPPROXIMATEMODELEQUATIONS63Vries(KdV)equationsforthesefourtypesofmodelequationsarederivedbythereductiveperturbationprocedure,andtheirsolitarywavesolutionsareshown.Inthelastsection,wedrawourconclusionsbasedonourdiscussionsonthesefourtypesofmodelequations.
2.MODELEQUATIONSDERIVEDFROMTIlETIlREE-DIMENSIONALELASTICITY
We
consideraxisymmetricmotionsofanonlinearelasticrodcomposedofanisotropichomogeneousmaterial.Inanundisturbedreferenceconfiguration,therodisacircularcylinderofradius
a.
Suppose
(r,(J,z)
arethecylindricalcoordinatesofamaterialpointwhichhasthecoordinates
(R,
e,Z)
inthereferenceconfiguration.
(J
=
e
becauseoftheassumptionofaxisymmetry.Thefmiteradialandaxialdisplacements,
U(R,~T)
and
W(R,~
T)
canbeexpressedasfollows:
U(R,~
T)
=
r(R,~
T)-
R,W(R,~
T)
=
z(R,~
T)-~
(1)
where
T
isthetime.Weintroducetheorthonormalbasesassociatedwiththecylindricalcoordinatesanddenotetheseby
E
R,
Ee,Ez
ande,.,
eo,
e,inthereferenceandcurrentplacements,respectively.Thedeformationgradienttensor
F
isgivenintheseorthonormalbasesby
F
=
(U
R
+
l)e
r
0
ER
+
Uye;
0Ez
+
(1
+
U/R)eo
0Ee
+
W
R
e
z
0
ER
+
(Wz
+
1
e
z
0E
(2)Sincehereweareinterestedinweaklynonlinearwaves,weshallconsiderthematerialnonlinearityuptothesecondorder.Forconvenience,wetaketheMurnaghanmaterial[17-18]forconsideration.Forthismaterial,thesecondPiola-Kirchhoffstresstensor
E
isoftheformwhere
E
=
(FTF-
1)/2
istheGreenstraintensor,
.A_
and
J1.
areknownastheLame'scoefficients,
Vb
V2,
V3
and
V4
areotherconstitutiveconstants,Trdenotesthetraceofatensor,andthesuperscript
T
denotesthetransposeofatensor.
We
pointoutthathereweonlytaketheMurnaghanmaterialasanexample,theapproachescanalsobeadoptedtotreatothermaterialswithdifferentconstitutiverelations(e.g.hyperelasticmaterialswithconstitutiverelationasgivenbyOgden[19]).ThefirstPiola-KirchhoffstresstensorS,whichequalsF:E,maynowbecomputed.
We
finditsnon-zerophysicalcomponentstobe
SrR
=
A.
U/R
+
A.
Wz
+
(.A_
+
2J1.)U
R
+
(A/2
+
VI
+
v2)(U/R)2
+
(A/2
+
J1.
+
vd2
+
V4/4)Ui
+
2V2UWZ/R
+
(A/2
+
VI
+
v2)Wi
+
(A
+
2V2
+
V3)UU
R
/R
+
(A
+
2V2
+
V3)U
R
Wz
+
(J1.
+
VI
+
v4/2)UzW
R
+
(3.A_/2
+
3J1.
+
VI
+
V2
+
V3
+
V4)U;
+
(.A_/2
+
J1.
+
vd2
+
V4/4)W;,
(4a)

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