Here again, interfaces driven by lasers that can apply a fewkJ of energy to a sub-mm spot, in an otherwise viable ex-periment, typically travel a mm or so.Prior work on the RM instability has including pioneer-ing experiments by Dimonte
Further experimentson RM, not yet published, are underway at the Omegalaser.
In some of these latter experiments,
the interface ismade to coast at constant velocity for about 1/3 mm. Thisdistance is limited by one-dimensional shock dynamics, es-tablished by the duration over which one can drive a steadyshock. The times in the experiment, including those requiredfor rarefactions to overtake shocks so they are no longersteady, are proportional to this duration. These times aretypically limited to
10 ns in a laser experiment, which alsorequires a shock velocity of tens of km/s
toproduce a strong shock in useful materials. The resulting,initial shocked region is a few hundred microns long, leadingto a maximum steady interface motion of a few hundredmicrons.We will see below that Z has the potential to greatlyexceed the distances over which the interface was moved inthese laser experiments. In both the experiments with lasersand those with Z, the principal diagnostic is side-on x-raybacklighting. Here by ‘‘side-on’’ one means in a directiontransverse to the direction of shock propagation. Face-onbacklighting, extremely useful during past experiments toexplore the linear phases of instability evolution, becomesmuch less useful once the spike tips broaden signiﬁcantly.The diagnostic resolution on Z should approach that of thelaser experiments, since Z will also use laser-driven x-raybacklighting to diagnose the experiments. This should enableexperiments using Z to follow the instability evolution muchfurther into the nonlinear regime.For completeness, one should note that any large lasercan shock and accelerate a slab of material, producing a‘‘plasma ﬂyer’’ that can deliver energy and momentum to adesired target. If the laser is large enough
, then theplasma ﬂyer can have sufﬁcient lateral size to permit studiesof mixing. Actual laser experiments, however, have typicallychosen to take the simpler approach of using the laser di-rectly to drive a shock wave into a chosen medium.In the following, we ﬁrst develop a common framework for the description of strong shocks driven by ﬂyer plates,and discuss some of the properties of such systems. We nextconsider the optimization of RT experiments. After that, wediscuss RM experiments. The examples use ﬂyer plate prop-erties that have been achieved on Z.
Speciﬁcally, we as-sume Al ﬂyer plates, 350
m thick, launched at 21 km/susing
forces. We note that these ﬂyers are believed tobe in the solid state and that their transverse dimensions are
10 mm. This implies that cm-scale experiments can beundertaken without fear that they will be greatly compro-mised by multidimensional effects.
Indeed, the limitationson Z are likely to be diagnostic ones, as discussed below.
Throughout the following, the simulations shown are fromthe Lagrangian radiation-hydrodynamics code, HYADES,
run with SESAME equation of state tables. In the experi-ments discussed, however, neither radiation nor heat conduc-tion is important.
Because both the RT and the RM problem involve theuse of a ﬂyer that strikes an impact layer, it is worthwhile toadopt some common terminology and to identify some stan-dard relationships for such a system. We will describe theevolution of ﬂyer-plate driven systems using the geometryshown in Fig. 1. Figure 1
shows a schematic of the ex-periment. The aluminum ﬂyer is about to strike the impactlayer. The impact layer typically might be made of plastic toallow the use of a doped layer for diagnostic purposes. Theunstable interface is at the boundary of the impact layer anda lower-density material, such as a CH foam. Figure 1
shows the density proﬁle during the initial phase of the ex-periment, and serves to deﬁne several quantities of interestfor our analysis. Let
represent thickness, den-sity, sound speed, and velocity, respectively. As in Fig. 1
,we will refer to the unshocked ﬂyer as region 1 and theunshocked impact layer as region 4, with the correspondingshocked regions being 2 and 3, using subscripts to designatethe regions. In the lab frame, designate velocities by
withsubscripts RS, FS, CS, and F to identify the reﬂected shock,forward shock, contact surface, and initial undisturbed ﬂyerplate, respectively. In addition, assume that the material inunshocked region
has a polytropic index,
For verystrongly shocked materials, it is frequently a reasonable as-sumption to take
Assume that the ﬂyer and the im-pact layer are both initially cold, and that all shocks arestrong. One then ﬁnds, by applying standard formulas, that
FIG. 1. Schematic and structure of the ﬂyer plate experiment.
Schematicshowing the ﬂyer plate about to impact an impact layer, adjacent to a lower-density layer.
Density proﬁle showing the deﬁnitions used in the analy-sis.
3546 Phys. Plasmas, Vol. 9, No. 8, August 2002 R. Paul Drake
Downloaded 23 Jun 2009 to 188.8.131.52. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright; see http://pop.aip.org/pop/copyright.jsp