438 Chapter Eighteen
has to do with the activity within the molecular struc-ture of matter and is typically observed with temperature measurements.
is determined by the relationships between moleculesin chemical compounds. When different molecules combine by chemicalreaction, they may give off heat (exothermic reaction) or require heat (en-dothermic reaction).
is related to the electrons moving along a conductor.
is the energy of atomic relationships between the fun-damental particles of matter. Nuclear ﬁssion and fusion are reactions thatrelease stored nuclear energy.
is observed as energy in motion from one region to another, result-ing in a temperature difference.
is an energy form that can be equated to the raising of a weight.This may be mechanical work, such as moving a mass in a force ﬁeld, or itmay be ﬂow work, such as moving a liquid against a resisting force.
is a term used with energy units that combines internal energywith a pressure/volume or ﬂow work term.
is a measurable characteristic of a system or a substance. Tem- perature, pressure, and density (speciﬁc volume) are all properties. Thedifferent kinds of energy, as well as enthalpy and entropy, are all consid-ered properties.
is a term used to quantify the difference between warm and cold or the level of internal energy of a substance. The original numericaldesignations were based on the difference between the freezing and boiling points of water. The Celsius scale deﬁnes the difference in terms of 100units, with 0 as the freezing point and 100 as the boiling point. The Fahr-enheit scale uses the freezing point of a salt solution as the zero point with pure water freezing at 32° and boiling at 212°. Notice that these “change-of-state” temperatures apply only at or near sea level atmospheric pressureas noted in other parts of this book. The lowest possible temperature, thecondition at which molecular activity ceases, is called
Theabsolute scale, which uses the Celsius increment, is called the
It places absolute zero at
273°C and the ice-melting point of water at
273°K. The absolute scale that uses Fahrenheit increments is called the
It places absolute zero at
460°F and the ice-melting pointof water at
492°R. There is no upper limit to the absolute temperature.
18.3 First Law of Thermodynamics
The ﬁrst law of thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. (Note the similarity to the law of mass conservation.) This im- plies that various forms of energy may be converted, one to another. It meansthat we can account for all energy conversions in a system with accuracy:Energy in
Change in stored energy