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Chapter 18

Chapter 18

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Engineering Fundamentals: Part 2
18.1 Introduction
Thermodynamics is an aspect of physics that deals with the energy charac-teristics of materials and with the behavior of systems undergoing changesin system energy levels. The field of thermodynamics is very broad and can vary in presentation and in application from relatively simple to verycomplex. For the purposes of this book a relatively simple presentation isadequate. The concepts of thermodynamics presented here are commonto virtually all textbooks and reference books. For those who want greater detail, Chapter 1 of the ASHRAE Handbook 
is written atthe college level.
18.2 Thermodynamics Terms
To better understand thermodynamics, remember that the basic terms
are defined in relatives rather than in absolutes.
can be reduced to the concepts of heat and work and can befound in various forms: potential energy, kinetic energy, thermal or inter-nal energy, chemical energy, and nuclear energy.
 Potential energy
is the energy of location or position of a mass in a forcefield. A body of water at the top of a hill has potential energy with respectto the bottom of the hill.
 Kinetic energy
is the energy of motion and is proportional to the squareof the velocity as well as the mass of the moving body.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.accessengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.Source: HVAC Systems Design Handbook
438 Chapter Eighteen
 Internal energy
has to do with the activity within the molecular struc-ture of matter and is typically observed with temperature measurements.
Chemical energy
is determined by the relationships between moleculesin chemical compounds. When different molecules combine by chemicalreaction, they may give off heat (exothermic reaction) or require heat (en-dothermic reaction).
 Electric energy
is related to the electrons moving along a conductor.
 Nuclear energy
is the energy of atomic relationships between the fun-damental particles of matter. Nuclear fission and fusion are reactions thatrelease stored nuclear energy.
is observed as energy in motion from one region to another, result-ing in a temperature difference.
is an energy form that can be equated to the raising of a weight.This may be mechanical work, such as moving a mass in a force field, or itmay be flow work, such as moving a liquid against a resisting force.
is a term used with energy units that combines internal energywith a pressure/volume or flow work term.
is a measurable characteristic of a system or a substance. Tem- perature, pressure, and density (specific volume) are all properties. Thedifferent kinds of energy, as well as enthalpy and entropy, are all consid-ered properties.
is a term used to quantify the difference between warm and cold or the level of internal energy of a substance. The original numericaldesignations were based on the difference between the freezing and boiling points of water. The Celsius scale defines the difference in terms of 100units, with 0 as the freezing point and 100 as the boiling point. The Fahr-enheit scale uses the freezing point of a salt solution as the zero point with pure water freezing at 32° and boiling at 212°. Notice that these “change-of-state” temperatures apply only at or near sea level atmospheric pressureas noted in other parts of this book. The lowest possible temperature, thecondition at which molecular activity ceases, is called 
absolute zero.
Theabsolute scale, which uses the Celsius increment, is called the
 It places absolute zero at
273°C and the ice-melting point of water at
273°K. The absolute scale that uses Fahrenheit increments is called the
 Rankine scale.
It places absolute zero at
460°F and the ice-melting pointof water at
492°R. There is no upper limit to the absolute temperature.
18.3 First Law of Thermodynamics
The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. (Note the similarity to the law of mass conservation.) This im- plies that various forms of energy may be converted, one to another. It meansthat we can account for all energy conversions in a system with accuracy:Energy in
Energy out
Change in stored energy
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.accessengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.Engineering Fundamentals: Part 2 Thermodynamics
Engineering Fundamentals: Part 2 439
is used to define the unavailable energy
in a system. In another sense, entropy defines the relative ability of one system to act on another.As things move toward a lower energy level where one is less able to actupon the surroundings, the entropy level is said to increase. If we look atthe universe as a whole, things are running down, so the entropy of theuniverse is said to be increasing.
18.4 Second Law of Thermodynamics
There are two classical statements of the second law of thermodynamics.The first was expressed by Kelvin and Planck: “No (heat) engine whoseworking fluid undergoes a cycle can absorb heat from a single reservoir,deliver an equivalent amount of work, and produce no other effect.” Tounderstand this statement, recognize that for energy to be available at allthere must be a region of high energy level contrasted to a region of lower energy level. Useful work must be derived from the energy that would flow from the higher potential region to the lower potential region. But100 percent of the energy cannot be converted into work. If it were, the process would be dealing with only a single energy region, in violation of the Kelvin-Planck statement.The theoretical maximum efficiency
of a heat machine working be-tween two energy regions is defined in terms of temperatures on an abso-lute scale as: 
 HL H  L H 
is the temperature of the high energy region 
is the temperature of the low energy regionAs the temperatures approach equilibrium (
), the process effi-ciency tends toward zero. The second statement of the second law is cred-ited to Clausius, who said, “No machine whose working fluid undergoes acycle can absorb heat from one system, reject heat to another system, and  produce no other effect.”Both statements of the second law place constraints on the first law byidentifying that, under natural conditions, things, including energy, rundownhill. It takes energy to drive cold to hot. It takes energy to raise aweight against gravity. (A corollary is that there is no such thing as a per- petual motion machine.) This means that in all the energy balances of thefirst law we know that some things will not happen unless we expend or give up something to make them happen.For example: refrigeration is a process of moving heat (thermal energy)from a cold region to a warmer region. Since this is counter to the natureof things, which prefer to run downhill, we must expend energy to makeit happen.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.accessengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.Engineering Fundamentals: Part 2 Thermodynamics

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