454 Chapter Twenty20.2.1 Temperatures
The dry-bulb temperature, T
, is the temperature of the moist air read onan “ordinary” thermometer. When not otherwise deﬁned, “temperature”means the dry-bulb temperature. In this text the Fahrenheit scale is used.The
wet-bulb temperature, T
, is measured by a thermometer on whichthe bulb is covered with a wetted cloth wick. Air is blown across the wick or the thermometer is moved rapidly through the air (the sling psychrom-eter), resulting in a cooling effect due to water evaporation. The amount of water evaporated, and therefore the cooling effect, is limited by the pres-ence of the moisture already in the air. The temperature obtained in thisway is not the same as the thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature used incalculating psychrometric tables, but the error is small. The difference be-tween the dry- and wet-bulb temperatures is sometimes called the wet- bulb depression.The
dew point temperature, T
of moist air is deﬁned by cooling the air until it is saturated and moisture begins to condense out of the mixture. For saturated air these three temperatures are equal, as shown by their intersec-tion on the saturation curve of the psychrometric chart.
20.2.2 Humidity Ratio
humidity ratio, w,
is the ratio of the mass of water vapor to the mass of the dry air in a sample of moist air. The
is the ratio of themass of water vapor to the total mass of the moist air sample. Although thetwo terms are often used interchangeably, they are not identical.
20.2.3 Degree of Saturation
The degree or percentage of saturation,
is the humidity ratio
of a moistair sample divided by the humidity ratio
of saturated air at the sametemperature and pressure:
20.2.4 Relative Humidity
The relative humidity,
, is the ratio of the mole fraction of water vapor,
, in a moist air sample to the mole fraction of saturated air,
, at thesame temperature and pressure. The relative humidity is expressed as a percentage, from 0 percent (dry air) to 100 percent (saturated air). It canalso be deﬁned in terms of the partial pressures of the water vapor in thesamples:
(20.2)Relative humidity values differ from percentage of humidity except at0 and 100 percent.