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11Introduction
Introduction
1.1 Some Characteristics of Fluids
F I G U R E E1.1
1.2.1Systems of Units
1.4Measures of Fluid Mass and Weight 9
1.3 Analysis of Fluid Behavior
1.4 Measures of Fluid Mass and Weight
1.4.1Density
1.4.2Specific Weight
1.4.3Specific Gravity
1.5Ideal Gas Law 11
1.5 Ideal Gas Law
1.6 Viscosity
1.7Compressibility of Fluids 17
1.7 Compressibility of Fluids
1.7.1Bulk Modulus
1.7.3Speed of Sound
1.9Surface Tension 21
1.8 Vapor Pressure
1.9 Surface Tension
1.10 A Brief Look Back in History
1.11Chapter Summary and Study Guide 27
1.11 Chapter Summary and Study Guide
Review Problems
Problems
22Fluid Statics
Fluid Statics
2.1Pressure at a Point 33
2.1 Pressure at a Point
2.2 Basic Equation for Pressure Field
2.3 Pressure Variation in a Fluid at Rest
2.3.1Incompressible Fluid
2.3.2 Compressible Fluid
2.5Measurement of Pressure 39
2.4 Standard Atmosphere
2.5 Measurement of Pressure
2.6 Manometry
2.6.1 Piezometer Tube
2.6.2 U-Tube Manometer
2.6.3 Inclined-Tube Manometer
2.9 Pressure Prism
2.11Buoyancy, Flotation, and Stability 57
2.11.1Archimedes’Principle
2.11.2Stability
2.13 Chapter Summary and Study Guide
3.1Newton’s Second Law 69
3.1 Newton’s Second Law
3.2 F ma Along a Streamline
3.3 F ma Normal to a Streamline
3.4 Physical Interpretation 75
3.4 Physical Interpretation
3.6.1Free Jets
3.6.2Confined Flows
3.6.3Flowrate Measurement
3.9Chapter Summary and Study Guide 95
3.9 Chapter Summary and Study Guide
Fluid Kinematics
4Fluid Kinematics
4.1 The Velocity Field
4.1The Velocity Field 103
4.2 The Acceleration Field
4.2.1The Material Derivative
4.2.3Convective Effects
4.2.4 Streamline Coordinates
4.3Control Volume and System Representations 115
4.3 Control Volume and System Representations
4.4 The Reynolds Transport Theorem
4.4.2Selection of a Control Volume
4.5 Chapter Summary and Study Guide
References
5.4 Chapter Summary and Study Guide
6.1 Fluid Element Kinematics
6.1.2 Linear Motion and Deformation
6.1.3Angular Motion and Deformation
6.2 Conservation of Mass
6.2.2Cylindrical Polar Coordinates
6.2.3The Stream Function
6.3 Conservation of Linear Momentum
6.3.2Equations of Motion
6.4 Inviscid Flow
6.4.1Euler’s Equations of Motion
6.4.2The Bernoulli Equation
6.4.3Irrotational Flow
6.4.5The Velocity Potential
6.5 Some Basic, Plane Potential Flows
6.5.4Doublet
6.6.2Flow around a Circular Cylinder
6.7 Other Aspects of Potential Flow Analysis
6.8.1Stress–Deformation Relationships
6.8.2 The Navier–Stokes Equations
6.9.2Couette Flow
6.10Other Aspects of Differential Analysis 229
6.10 Other Aspects of Differential Analysis
6.11 Chapter Summary and Study Guide
7.1Dimensional Analysis 239
7.1 Dimensional Analysis
7.2 Buckingham Pi Theorem
7.3Determination of Pi Terms 241
7.3 Determination of Pi Terms
7.4.1Selection of Variables
7.4.3Uniqueness of Pi Terms
7.7 Correlation of Experimental Data
7.7.1Problems with One Pi Term
7.8 Modeling and Similitude
7.8.1Theory of Models
7.8.2Model Scales
7.8.3Distorted Models
7.9 Some Typical Model Studies
7.9.1Flow through Closed Conduits
7.9.2Flow around Immersed Bodies
7.9.3Flow with a Free Surface
7.10Chapter Summary and Study Guide 267
7.10 Chapter Summary and Study Guide
Viscous Flow in Pipes
8Viscous Flow in Pipes
8.1General Characteristics of Pipe Flow 275
8.1 General Characteristics of Pipe Flow
8.1.1Laminar or Turbulent Flow
8.2 Fully Developed Laminar Flow
8.3 Fully Developed Turbulent Flow
8.3.2Turbulent Shear Stress
8.4Dimensional Analysis of Pipe Flow 285
8.3.3Turbulent Velocity Profile
8.4 Dimensional Analysis of Pipe Flow
8.4.1Major Losses
8.4.2Minor Losses
8.4.3Noncircular Conduits
8.5Pipe Flow Examples 299
8.5 Pipe Flow Examples
8.5.1Single Pipes
9.2 Boundary Layer Characteristics
9.2.5Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow
9.3.1Friction Drag
9.3.2Pressure Drag
9.3.3Drag Coefficient Data and Examples
9.4.1Surface Pressure Distribution
9.4.2 Circulation
9.5Chapter Summary and Study Guide 363
9.5 Chapter Summary and Study Guide
Open-Channel Flow
10.2Surface Waves 371
10.2 Surface Waves
10.2.1Wave Speed
10.2.2Froude Number Effects
10.3 Energy Considerations
10.3.1 Specific Energy
10.4 Uniform Depth Channel Flow
10.4.1Uniform Flow Approximations
10.4.3Uniform Depth Examples
10.6 Rapidly Varied Flow
10.6.1The Hydraulic Jump
10.6.2 Sharp-Crested Weirs
10.6.4Underflow Gates
10.7Chapter Summary and Study Guide 397
10.7 Chapter Summary and Study Guide
11Turbomachines
Turbomachines
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Basic Energy Considerations
11.3 Basic Angular Momentum Considerations
11.4 The Centrifugal Pump
11.4.1Theoretical Considerations
11.4.2Pump Performance Characteristics
11.6Axial-Flow and Mixed-Flow Pumps 423
11.6 Axial-Flow and Mixed-Flow Pumps
11.8 Compressible Flow Turbomachines
11.9Chapter Summary and Study Guide 437
11.9 Chapter Summary and Study Guide
Online Appendix List
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A Brief Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 5th Ed. - D. Young, Et Al., (Wiley, 2011) BBS

# A Brief Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 5th Ed. - D. Young, Et Al., (Wiley, 2011) BBS

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