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Job Commitment, Job Satisfaction and Gender in the Nigeria Police

Job Commitment, Job Satisfaction and Gender in the Nigeria Police

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 Job commitment, job satisfactionand gender
377
Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & ManagementVol. 26 No. 3, 2003pp. 377-385
#
MCB UP Limited1363-951XDOI 10.1108/13639510310489449
Job commitment, jobsatisfaction and gender aspredictors of mentoring in theNigeria Police
A. Oyesoji Aremu
 Department of Guidance and Counselling, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, and 
C. Adeola Adeyoju
 Institute of Education, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Keywords 
Job commitment, Job satisfaction, Gender, Mentoring, Nigeria, Police
Abstract 
This study investigates the effect of mentoring on commitment to job, job satisfactionand gender in the Nigeria Police. The participants, numbering 592, were recruited for the study from three out of six geo-political zones in Nigeria using a cluster quota random sampling method. They comprised 396 (66.9 per cent) males and 196 (33.1 per cent) females, 179 (30.2  per cent) officers (senior officers) and 413 (69.8 per cent) junior staff. Two hypotheses and tworesearch questions were tested and answered at 0.05 margin of error using Z score and analysisof variance statistics. Results showed that mentored male police are more committed to their job.The mentored female police showed more satisfaction with their job than the mentored male police. Mentoring was also found to predict commitment to job of the police. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Introduction
The Nigeria Police was established by the British colonial rulers as a vitalinstitution for propping up civil administration. Since then, the profession haswitnessed remarkable transformation in terms of manpower, logistics,resources and organizational framework under successive governments in thecountry. Good as the police institution is, an emerging fact for its continuingrelevance and effectiveness that is often overlooked is commitment to duty,and job satisfaction of the personnel. As the policing functions and roles haveassumed rather radical approaches, it has been observed by Tamuno (1993)that the services performed by the police are so linked with various aspects of development that they cannot be easily ignored. This viewpoint encapsulatesthe vital role of the police in nation building.As in some professions, police duties are characterized by continual pressingand urgent demands. Consequently, one is confronted with an inquiry intoprofiles of commitment to job, and job satisfaction and gender of policepersonnel. The compelling interest for this study is therefore premised onwhether or not mentoring has any correlation with a significant determinant of commitment to job and job satisfaction and gender in the police. As has beenestablished in some studies (i.e. Scandura, 1992; Whitely
et al.
, 1992) ``mentor
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PIJPSM26,3
378
image: has greatly influenced commitment, productivity and promotionalprofiles of police forces in certain countries.’’ In that circumstance, the effect of mentoring within the Nigeria Police can hardly be assumed to be non-existentand therefore oughtto be evaluated.
Literature review
It is importantto point out from the outset that empirical information in respectof mentoring effects on commitment to job, job satisfaction and gender withinthe Nigeria Police is virtually nil. Much of what is currently available is derivedfrom foreign sources, in addition to a few local studies undertaken within thelast six years which indeed did not strictly focus on the current topic.Therefore, we have attempted a somewhat rigorous review of existingempirical and theoretical literature in order to situate our current effort on aproperpremise.Dreher and Cox (1996) define mentoring as a developmental relationshipbetween two different ranks within the same organization. It is a situation inwhich a junior staff member is distinctly enchanted by the personality, statusand record of achievement of a senior colleague in the same organization. Inthis regard, the junior colleague (mentoree) is a novice, while the seniorcolleague (mentor) is already well established in his/her profession and ishighly regarded by his/her peers. By their nature, police personnel are chargedwith monitoring and controlling a variety of deviant behaviour of the civilianpopulation. Specifically, the police are expected to be up-to-date in respect of existing laws of the land and when, for some reasons, their performance fallsshort of expectation, members of the public are eager to condemn them. Moreoften than not, the reason for poor performance may be due to unfavourablework environment, poor conditions of service and, indeed, lack of mentoring.Thus Muller-Smith (1998) emphasizes that mentoring enhances workaccomplishment and fulfillment. An organization such as the police which isprone to a great deal of violence and hazards has a lot to benefit form shiningexamples within its leadership. However, in our own postulation, we accept asnoted in a previous study (Burke and Mckeen, 1995) that commitment to joband job satisfaction are major factors for workersadvancement in anorganization. Belcher and Sibbald (1998) confirm that mentoring promotesindividuals’ professional growth, particularly knowledge and skill acquisitionwhich are facilitated through interaction. Hence, availability and the quality of mentoring may be of significant importance to workers’ output and generalprospects. For instance, Akinnawo (1994) stresses the fact that a significantpercentage of the Nigerian police personnel is dissatisfied with their jobbecause of poor conditions of service.In another study, Aremu (1998) notes that gender is an important factor in job satisfaction in the Nigeria Police. In the study he noted that junior femalepolice staff members seem to be more satisfied with their job than their malecounterparts are. Adeyemo (2001) noted that most of the research works treat job satisfaction, organizational commitment, career commitment and job
 
 Job commitment, job satisfactionand gender
379
involvement as dependent variables. Also, this study treats job commitment, job satisfaction as well as gender as dependent variables, while mentoring istreated as an dependentvariable.Meyer (1993) defines career commitment as the degree of commitment toone’s profession or occupation while Ellemer
et al.
(1998) define it asindividuals’ motivation to work towards personal advancement in theirprofession. In a study of police leadership and professionalism, Tamuno (1993)notes that the Nigeria Police is generally inefficient andineffective partly due tolack of resources and partly to paucity of shining examples within theorganization. Furthermore, Ebo (1993) attributes the poor image and lowperformance of the police to a variety of factors but ignores the impact of image-setting of the leaders. Ebo (1993) then concludes that there is a generallack of job commitment and job satisfaction among the officers due tounguarded imposition of the federal recruitment policy, unfriendliness of officers, poor working conditions and job insecurity resulting from gross abuseof establishment rules, punitivepostings, nepotism and ethnicity.Aremu and Idowu (2001) reported in their study that Nigeria women policeare generally satisfied with their job. They observed that even though there isno policy limiting the number of women police, few women show interestduringrecruitment because they see a police career as good for men and not forwomen. This stand of some women may be due to the hazardous nature of policing and what they view as indiscriminate; frequent transfers which mayaffect their marriage.It is thus obvious that the average police man needs encouragement as wellas a good role model for him to attain a high grade performance level. This viewis further reinforced by Meck
etal.
(1995)that mentoring adolescents serves as aresource for transitional problem solving. Also, in their study of cross-culturalmentor effectiveness and African American male students, Grant and Atkinson(1997) report that an interaction between mentor, ethnicity and participant levelof cultural mistrust are related to perception of mentor credibility andeffectiveness. Again in a study of the effects of mentoring on employees’ careersuccess, Orpen (1995) reports that vocational mentoring is much moreassociated with career success than with personal mentoring. This argumentmay seem not to be true in that it is difficult to divorce personality attributesfrom success (career success inclusive). Furthermore, Baugh
et al.
(1996)investigate the effects of proteÂgeÂs and gender status responses to mentoring andobserve that both male and female non-proteÂgeÂs have lower expectations inrespect of advancementopportunitieswithin and outside the organization.Theyalso note that both male and female proteÂgeÂs seemed to have been equallyinfluenced by their respective mentors. Thus, mentoring is crucial to the level of workers’ commitment to job, career developmentandjob satisfaction.In another development, Aremu and Oluwole (2000) contend that there is aseeming convergence of ideas and perception as regards the self-image of theNigeria Police, which surreptitiously gave the police in Nigeria a very poorimage. The researchers then observed that the police in Nigeria have low

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