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23590627 Fatigue Design

23590627 Fatigue Design

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PERGAMON
Engineering Failure Analysis 5 "0888# 002Ð029S0249Ð5296:88:, ! see front matter
Þ
0888 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd[ All rights reservedPII] S0249Ð5296"87#99914Ð8
Fatigue design of welded aluminum rectangular hollowsection joints
K[A[ Macdonald\ P[J[ Haagensen
Norwegian University of Science and Technology\ Department of Structural Engineering\ Rich[ Birkelandsvei 0a
\
N!6923 Trondheim
\
Norway
Received 6 August 0887^ accepted 7 September 0887
Abstract
Fatigue design methods for welded aluminum joints are reviewed\ including various approaches to fatiguelife estimation currently adopted in design codes across a range of industrial applications[ The applicabilityof these established methodologies to the fatigue design of automotive space frame structures is criticallyassessed[ The hot spot stress method is identi_ed as the most promising in terms of providing a coherentand comprehensive approach to design[ Particular problems related to implementation are considered suchas failure sites and determination of appropriate stress concentration factors from physical models\ _niteelement calculations or parametric equations[ Preliminary results from _nite element stress analyses andfatigue tests are also presented for rectangular hollow sections welded in a T!joint con_guration[ Recom!mendations are made for a design methodology for welded rectangular hollow!section joints in aluminumspace frames\ including use of a single hot spot
SÐN 
curve[
Þ
0888 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd[ Allrights reserved[
Keywords]
Automotive design^ Fatigue design^
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curves^ Space frames^ Weld fatigue
0[ Introduction
Aluminium welded hollow section "RHS# joints are _nding increased use in crane and bridgestructures\ transport vehicles and in automotive structures[ Tubular structures are occasionallyfabricated using forged or cast nodes but these are more expensive to produce than welded inter!tube connections which are consequently more common[ However\ the fatigue design basis forwelded RHS joints in aluminium is limited and no design recommendations currently exist forsuch joints[An appropriatestarting platformfromwhich to establish a fatiguedesign methodologycould be the experience recently gained with similar structures fabricated in steel[ In particular\fatigue assessment based on the geometric hot spot stress range "or hot spot stress# concept could
Corresponding author[
 
K[A[ Macdonald 
\
P[J[ Haa`ensen:En`ineerin` Failure Analysis 5 "0887# 002Ð029
003
be adopted for aluminium structures[ However\ in automotive design the material thicknesses tendto be smaller than those used in civil engineering design and this di}erence might limit thepossibilities for transfer of data from the steel industry[This paper gives a brief overview of fatigue assessment procedures used in the design of steeltubular structures[ The limited
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data available for aluminium RHS joints are presented andthe need for further experimental research is outlined[Trendsin thedevelopmentofdesigncodes arealsodiscussed inlightofthefactthatinternationalcodes are rapidly harmonising through co!operation between organisations such as ISO "Inter!national Standards Organisation#\ CEN "ComiteEuropeen de Normalisation# responsible forEurocodes\ IIW "International Institute of Welding# and API "American Petroleum Institute#[
1[ Fatigue life assessment methods for welded tubular joints
In the majority of current fatigue design codes there are two generic types of 
SÐN 
curve used[In conventional welded structures involving plates and beams\ the
nominal stress
approach isnormally employed where the di}erent fatigue behaviour of various structural elements or detailsis described by assigning to them di}erent
SÐN 
curves\ termed design categories or classes\ andcombining these with nominal stresses remote from the weld[ Since fatigue failure in weldedconstructionsisnotonlyrelatedtogeometry\thedirectionofloadingandfailuresitealsoin~uences joint categorisation[ Examples of design categories of such basic connections are joints with buttor _llet weld\ having di}erent design categories dependent on the stress direction[ The mainadvantage of the nominal stress approach is that the
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curves for each weld category "or weldclass# include the notch e}ect of the weld as well as the e}ect of the component geometry[ Themain sources of scatter due to fabrication variables are thus included in the test data used to createthe curve[ Nominal stresses are calculated from a structural analysis and comprise the membranestress range\
m
and the bending stress range
b
in general
m
¦
b
[ The complexities of andinteractions between geometry and loading found in some structures\ e[g[\ in circular sectiontubular joints\ give rise to a plethora of possible failure sites and here the
hot spot stress
approachisusedtoreducethedesigntoacommonbasis[Additionally\thedi.cultiesencounteredinde_ninga nominal stress in complex structures also make the hot spot approach the only practicablemethod[ Fatigue failure will occur at sites of high peak stress in such joints and it is assumed thatfatigue life is related to the magnitude of these peaks[ Fatigue design is accomplished by combiningknowledge of these local stress peaks*usually in the form of a stress concentration factor "
SCF 
#for a particular load con_guration*with an
SÐN 
curve representing a simple weld without anystructural
SCF 
[
1[0[ The geometric hot spot stress approach*circular hollow!section "CHS# joints
The hot spot approach has been used extensively in the o}shore industry in the analysis of results from tests on steel tubular joints ð0Ł[ Stresses in circular hollow!section "CHS# joints arisefrom three main sources]"i# The basic stress response due to the global action of the remote applied load\ i[e[\ the stress
 
K[A[ Macdonald 
\
P[J[ Haa`ensen:En`ineerin` Failure Analysis 5 "0887# 002Ð029
004
that can be calculated from a frame analysis disregarding the stress concentrating e}ects of both the joint and the weld["ii# The geometric stresses resulting from local bending of the tube walls to maintain compatibilitybetween the members["iii# The highly local stress near the intersection lines between members[ These local stresses arestrongly in~uenced by the weld shape[The maximum stress "or notch stress#\ located at the weld toe is the sum of the nominal stress\ thegeometric stress and the local stress components[ The geometric hot spot stress range or hot spotstress concept has evolved as the most practical basis for fatigue design of welded joints[ It capturesthe _ctitious local stress that characterises the fatigue performance of the joint\ but excludes thevery local stress perturbations caused by changes in the weld toe geometry[ Also excluded are thee}ects of any undetectable defects[ These e}ects are included in the
SÐN 
curve[ The hot spot stressconcept places di}erent structural geometries on a common basis\ enabling the use of a single
SÐN 
curve[ The hot spot stress
h
is related to the global loads in the structure through]
h
SC
nom
"0#where
nom
is the nominal stress range and the stress concentration factor "
SCF 
# is normallyobtained from either _nite element analyses or from strain gauge measurements[ It is importantthat consistency with the
SÐN 
curve is maintained by using the same method for estimating thehot spot in the fatigue test as used in obtaining
SCF 
s[ The hot spot stress method for steel CHS joints has been validated by
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data for di}erent types of joints and loading conditions that plotinto a single scatter band ð0Ł[There is general agreement that the hot spot is located at the weld toe but there are manyopinions as to the proper method of determining the hot spot from strain gauge measurements[ Inthe early US practice for o}shore structures\ the API and AWS codes de_ned the hot spot stressrange as the total stress range measured by a strain gauge placed adjacent to the weld toe\perpendicular to the weld[ Therefore an attempt was made to measure the maximum stress at theweld toe\ including the notch e}ect of the weld[ Typically hot spot gauges were placed within5 mm to 9[0
rt
of the weld toe with a gauge length of 2 mm\
r
and
t
referring to the outside radiusand thickness of the instrumented member[IntheEuropeanCoalandSteelCommunity"ECSC#methodð1Ł\alsoforo}shoresteelstructures\an extrapolation is made from two strain gauges placed just outside the weld notch zone and inthe region of stress linearity to determine the geometric hot spot stress range[ This method is alsoused for non!linear stress distributions[ In the Det Norske Veritas "DNV# method ð2Ł for o}shorestructures\ many strain gauges are placed near the weld to allow for a more accurate determinationof the region of hot spot stress[ The ECSC and the DNV recommended locations for the straingauges are shown in Fig[ 0[ The ECSC de_nition is based on the maximum principal stress\ i[e[\thestresscomponentsareextrapolatedtotheweldtoeandthemaximumprincipalstresscalculated[The stress normal to the weld used in the US de_nition is somewhat lower than this but in theregions of highest stress\ the crown and saddle location the two are almost identical[In the IIW design recommendations ð3Ł\ a non!linear "quadratic# extrapolation procedure isrecommended for cases of high local shell bending stresses caused for example by eccentricattachments in large diameter tubes or plane plates[ The quadratic extrapolation requires a

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