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Sea Ocean and Small Islands 2004

Sea Ocean and Small Islands 2004

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SEAS, OCEANSANDSMALL ISLANDS
Paul Raymond Bérenger
Into the mainstream 
The Ecumenical Patriarch
Creation’s forgotten days 
Saufatu Sopoanga
Stop my nation vanishing 
Conrad C. Lautenbacher
Oceans need mountains 
Carlos Manuel Rodríguez
An ocean corridor 
Ronny Jumeau
No island is an island 
Anwarul K. Chowdhury 
Small islands, big potential 
Volume 15 No 1
Ou
Planet
The magazine of the United Nations Environment Programme
 
Ou
Planet
www.ourplanet.com
2
This issue of
Our Planet 
has been made possible by the generosity of the United Nations Foundation/BetterWorld Fund.
The contents of this magazine do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of UNEP, the United Nations Foundation or the editors,nor are they an official record. The designations employed and the presentation do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoeveron the part of UNEP or the UNFoundation concerning the legal status of any country, territory or city or its authority, or concerningthe delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.The non-copyrighted contents of this magazine may be reprinted without charge provided that
Our Planet
and the author orphotographer concerned are credited as the source and the editors are notified in writing and sent a voucher copy.
Our Planet
welcomes articles, reviews, illustrations and photos for publication but cannot guarantee that they will be published.Unsolicited manuscripts, photographs and artwork will not be returned.
Subscriptions:
If you wish to receive
Our Planet
on a regular basis and are not currently on the mailing list, please contact ManiKebede, Circulation Manager,
Our Planet
, for subscription details, giving your name and address and your preferred language(English, French or Spanish).
Change of address
: Please send your address label together with your new address to: Mani Kebede, Circulation Manager,
Our Planet
, UNEP, PO Box 30552, Nairobi, Kenya.
This magazine is printed using vegetable-based inks on paper made from 100 per cent recycled waste material. It isbleached without any damage to the environment.
Our 
Planet
,the magazine of the
United Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP)PO Box 30552, Nairobi, KenyaTel (254 20) 621 234; fax 623 927;telex 22068 UNEP KEe-mail: cpiinfo@unep.orgwww.unep.orgISSN 1013-7394Director of Publication: Eric FaltEditor: Geoffrey LeanCoordinator: Naomi PoultonSpecial Contributor: Nick NuttallCirculation Manager: ManyahleshalKebedeDesign: Roger WhiskerWeb Editor: Chris CypertProduction: BansonPrinted in the United KingdomFront cover: Hank Foto/UNEP/Topham
20Small islands, big potential
 Ambassador Anwarul K. Chowdhury,UN Under-Secretary-Generaland High Representative for the Least  Developed Countries, Landlocked  Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States
22Small is vulnerable
 Ambassador Jagdish Koonjul,Chairman of the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS)
24Natural resilience
 Albert Binger, Director of theUniversity of the West Indies Centre for  Environment and Development, and Visiting Professor at Saga University Institute of Ocean Energy, Japan
26Books and products27Keeping oil from troubled waters
Paul Loeffelman, Director, Environmental Public Policy, American Electric Power 
28Redressing the balance
The Rt Hon. Don McKinnon,Commonwealth Secretary-General
30Neighbours without borders
 Ellik Adler, Regional Seas ProgrammeCoordinator, UNEP
32Will Mother Nature wait?
 Jodi-Ann Johnson, student of  psychology, University of theWest Indies, Jamaica
11Energy release
The Hon. Tom Roper,Project Director, Small Island States Energy Initiative,Climate Institute
12Oceans need mountains
Vice Admiral Conrad C. Lautenbacher Jr, US Navy (Ret.),US Undersecretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere, and  Administrator of the NationalOceanic and Atmospheric Administration
14 People15An ocean corridor
Carlos Manuel Rodríguez, Minister of Environment and Energy,Costa Rica
16At a glance:Seas, oceans and smallislands18Profile: Cesaria Evora
‘La diva aux pieds nus’
19 No island is an island
 Ronny Jumeau, Minister for  Environment and Natural Resources,Seychelles
3Editorial
Klaus Toepfer, Executive Director,UNEP
4Into the mainstream
The Hon. Paul Raymond Bérenger,Prime Minister of the Republic of Mauritius
6Creations forgotten days
 His All Holiness Bartholomewof Constantinople, Archbishopof Constantinople, New Rome, and  Ecumenical Patriarch
8Restoring a pearl
Timothy E. Wirth, President of theUnited Nations Foundation and Better World Fund 
9Stop my nation vanishing
The Hon. Saufatu Sopoanga,Prime Minister of Tuvalu
   M  a  r   k   L  y  n  a  s   /   S   t   i   l   l   P   i  c   t  u  r  e  s   M  a  r   k   D .   S  p  a   l   d   i  n  g
Also available on the internet atwww.ourplanet.com, with anadditional article by Margie Falanruwon the Pacific Alternative
 
3
T
he great philosopher who de-veloped the
Principle of Respons-ibility 
, Hans Jonas, once remarked:‘Today, mankind is a bigger threat to thesea than the sea has ever been tomankind.’This edition of
Our Planet 
marks theannual World Environment Day cele-brations. The theme ‘Sea and Oceans!Wanted Dead or Alive?’ reflects Jonas’observations, his concerns. From over-fishing and the discharge of untreated,raw, sewage to the clearing and de-struction of precious habitats like coralreefs and mangrove swamps, the world’smarine environment is under assault asnever before.UNEP, and the rest of the UnitedNations system, is not standing idly by,merely a witness and chronicler of thedamage. The United Nations MillenniumDevelopment Goals and the World Sum-mit on Sustainable Development’s(WSSD) Plan of Implementation give usclear targets and timetables for address-ing a wide range of pressing issues in-cluding those relating to oceans and seas.Under the plan, we all have the
From the desk of 
KLAUS TOEPFER
United NationsUnder-Secretary-Generaland Executive Director,UNEP
responsibility to restore fish stocks tohealthy levels by 2015, where possible.Significantly, it also urges establishing aglobal network of marine protectedareas. Already we are seeing action onthis – from proposals dramatically toextend Australia’s protection for its GreatBarrier Reef to moves by six West Africancountries – Cape Verde, Gambia, Guinea,Guinea Bissau, Mauritania and Senegal –to develop a network of marine protectedareas aimed at reducing overfishing andpossible threats from oil exploration.
Key target
One key target and timetable set at WSSDwas to halve the number of peoplewithout access to basic sanitation by2015. Not only will this reduce sicknessand misery, it will also reduce the levelsof toxic, algal blooms in the oceans whichthreaten human health and wildlife – andspread low-oxygen areas, so called‘dead zones’.Reducing sewage pollution will alsocut discharges which can choke preciousmarine habitats, like coral reefs. Theseare fish nurseries and significant gen-erators of tourist dollars for often poorcoastal communities.Delivering the WSSD sanitation targetshould lead to further spin-offs for themarine world. In some situations,modern wastewater treatment worksmay be appropriate. But natural systems– some of which, like mangrove swamps,are coastal and marine – can provide low-cost alternatives. Many are being clearedfor agriculture and other uses. Byfocusing attention on their sewage andpollution filtering properties, valuablehabitats for spawning fish and birds canbe saved.The seas are special but there aresome areas that are especially vulnerableto interference by humankind.
Pervasive threat
In small island developing states, watersupplies, agriculture, terrestrial andmarine wildlife and unique cultures arethreatened not only by overfishing,pollution and insensitive development.They are also threatened by probably thegreatest and most pervasive threat of all,namely climate change.Solutions to their plight will be thefocus of the Barbados+10 meeting to beheld in Mauritius later in 2004.These activities are not carried out inisolation.The United Nations Convention on theLaw of the Sea (UNCLOS) and its imple-menting agreements are now in forcealongside numerous regional fisheriesagreements.We now have 13 regions covered by theUNEP Regional Seas Programme, thelatest of which covers the North EastPacific. There are also three, non-UNEP,regional seas agreements includingthe Oslo Paris Commission (OSPAR)Convention.UNEP, with funding from the GlobalEnvironment Facility, is also leading thefour-year Global International WatersAssessment or GIWA. This is a sort ofmarine and freshwater equivalent of theIntergovernmental Panel on ClimateChange (IPCC).Sixty-six international waters arebeing assessed with the aim of giving theinternational community crucial infor-mation on where current problems are.Significantly GIWA will also developscenarios of the future conditions ofthese waters as a result of social, eco-nomic and environmental pressures,allowing the international community toprioritize efforts.I am delighted to say that GIWA is wellunder way. Work on several significantregions, including the Amazon Basin, theIndian Ocean Islands and the CaspianSea, has been successfully completed.UNEP’s Global Programme of Actionfor the Protection of the Marine Environ-ment from Land-based Activities (GPA)was also given big backing by WSSD.By 2006, up to 40 mainly developingcountries are expected to have nationalprogrammes of action in place to reducethe levels of pollution entering the seafrom the land and from rivers
   U   N   E   P
Our 
Planet
YOUR VIEWS
We would really like to receive your feedback on the issues raised in this edition of 
Our Planet 
. Please either e-mail feedback 
@
ourplanet.com or write to:Feedback, Our Planet 27 Devonshire Road Cambridge CB1 2BH United Kingdom

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