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Published by: Daisy on Nov 18, 2008
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UNEP Division of Technology, Industry and Economics
Energy and OzonAction Unit www.uneptie.org/energy
 Solar Thermal 
The sun’s energy can be collected directly to create bothhigh temperature steam (greater than 100
C) and lowtemperature heat (less than 100
C) for use in a variety of heat and power applications.
The Technology
 High temperature solar thermal systems
use mirrors andother reflective surfaces to concentrate solar radiation.Parabolic dish systems concentrate solar radiation to asingle point to produce temperatures in excess of 1000
C. Line-focus parabolic concentrators focus solar radiation along a single axis to generate temperatures of about 350
C. Central receiver systems use mirrors tofocus solar radiation on a central boiler.The resulting high temperatures can be used to createsteam to either drive electric turbine generators, or to power chemical processes such as the production of hy-drogen
. Low temperature solar thermal systems
collect solar radiation to heat air and water for industrial applicationsincluding:
 space heating for homes, offices and greenhouses
domestic and industrial hot water 
 pool heating 
 solar cooking, and 
crop drying.
These technologies include
systems.Passive systems collect energy without the need for  pumps or motors,generally through theorientation, materials,and construction of acollector. These properties allow thecollector to absorb,store, and use solar radiation. Passivesystems are particu-larly suited to the de-sign of buildings(where the building itself acts as the collector) and ther-mosiphoning solar hot water systems (explained later).For new buildings, passive systems generally entail verylow or no additional cost because they simply take ad-vantage of the orientation and design of a building tocapture and use solar radiation. In colder climates, a pas-sive solar system can reduce heating costs by up to 40 percent while in hotter climates, passive systems canreduce the absorption of solar radiation and thus reducecooling costs.The most common active systems use pumps to circulatewater or another heat absorbing fluid through a solar 
Costs Domestic Solar Water Heating 
Capital costs project:US$1500 - $3000Operating life:15 40 years Payback period:4 14 yearsMaintenance costs:$25 - $30/yea
average figures for home ownerssource: Florida Solar Energy Center 
 Solar Thermal Electricity
Capital CostUS$2500-3500/kW*Operating Life20 years Levelised CostUS$ 0.8-15/kWh**
* kW = kilowatt ** kWh = kilowatt-hour The orientation of a building towardsthe sun acts as a passive solar collec-tor (courtesy CASE).The Solar Two project in California USA uses a field of mirrors to focus solar energy onto a central boiler to pro-duce steam and electricity. (Photo courtesy NREL).
 Key Points:
Generating low temperature heat via solar technology for space and water heating is a proven and mature industry.
 Active solar technology uses pumps and/or motors to circulate the solar-heated fluid while passive systems use the orientationand design of the solar collector to collect energy.
 High temperature solar thermal technology for power applications is a specialized mar-ket that needs further research and devel-opment to become competitive.

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