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Table Of Contents

1.1 The Classical Approach to Texture
1.2 The Modern Approach to Texture: Microtexture
1.2.1 Applications of Microtexture
1.2.2 Electron Backscatter Diffraction
1.2.3 Orientation Microscopy and Orientation Mapping
1.3 A Guide to the Book
Descriptors of Orientation
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Crystal Structures and Crystal Symmetries
2.3.1 Coordinate Systems
2.3.2 The Rotation (Orientation) Matrix
2.3.3 Crystallographically Related Solutions
2.5.1 The Pole Figure
2.5.2 The Inverse Pole Figure
2.6 The Euler Angles and Euler Space
2.6.1 The Euler Angles
2.6.2 The Euler Space
2.7.1 Angle/Axis of Rotation
2.7.2 Angle/Axis Description of Misorientation
2.7.3 The Cylindrical Angle/Axis Space
2.8 The Rodrigues Vector and Rodrigues Space
2.8.1 The Rodrigues Vector
2.8.2 The Fundamental Zone
2.8.3 Properties of Rodrigues Space
2.9 Summation
Application of Diffraction to Texture Analysis
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Diffraction of Radiation and Bragg’s Law
3.3 Structure Factor
3.4 Laue and Debye–Scherrer Methods
3.5 Absorption and Depth of Penetration
3.6.1 X-Rays
3.6.2 Neutrons
3.6.3 Electrons
3.7 Summation
Macrotexture Measurements
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Principle of Pole Figure Measurement
4.3 X-Ray Diffraction Methods
4.3.1 Generation of X-Rays
4.3.3 Principles of Pole Figure Scanning
4.3.4 X-Ray Detectors
4.3.5 Energy-Dispersive Diffractometry
4.3.7 Inverse Pole Figures
4.4 Neutron Diffraction Methods
4.4.2 Time-of-Flight Measurements
4.5.1 Peak Separation
4.5.2 Multiphase Materials
4.6 Sample Preparation
4.7 Summation
Evaluation and Representation of Macrotexture Data
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Pole Figure and Inverse Pole Figure
5.2.1 Normalization and Contouring of Pole Figures
5.3.1 The Orientation Distribution Function
5.3.2 The Series Expansion Method
5.3.3 Direct Methods
5.4 Representation and Display of Texture in Euler Space
5.4.1 Properties of Euler Space
5.4.2 Representation and Display of Textures
5.5.2 Deformation Textures of bcc Metals
5.5.3 Deformation Textures of Hexagonal Metals
5.5.4 Recrystallization Textures of fcc Metals
5.5.5 Recrystallization Textures of bcc Metals
5.6 Summation
The Kikuchi Diffraction Pattern
6.1 Introduction
6.2 The Kikuchi Diffraction Pattern
6.2.1 Formation of Kikuchi Patterns
6.2.3 Projection of the Kikuchi Pattern
6.2.4 Qualitative Evaluation of the Kikuchi Pattern
6.3 Quantitative Evaluation of the Kikuchi Pattern
6.3.1 Principles of Orientation Determination
6.3.4.1 Dynamic Range
6.3.4.2 Bright and Dark Kikuchi Lines
6.3.4.3 Unambiguous Indexing
6.4 Pattern Quality
6.5 Summation
Scanning Electron Microscopy–Based Techniques
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Micro-Kossel Technique
7.4 Evolution of Electron Backscatter Diffraction
7.5 EBSD Specimen Preparation
7.6 Experimental Considerations for EBSD
7.6.1 Hardware
7.6.2 Data Collection Efficiency
7.6.3 Experiment Design Philosophy
7.6.4 Phase Identification
7.6.5 Resolution and Operational Parameters
7.6.5.1 Microscope Parameters
7.6.5.2 Material
7.6.5.3 Specimen/Microscope Geometry
7.6.5.4 Accelerating Voltage
7.6.5.5 Probe Current
7.6.5.6 Pattern Clarity
7.6.6 Diffraction Pattern Enhancement
7.7 Calibration of an EBSD System
7.7.1 Calibration Principles
7.7.2 Calibration Procedures
7.7.2.1 Shadow Casting
7.7.2.2 Known Crystal Orientation
7.7.2.3 Pattern Magnification
7.7.2.4 Iterative Pattern Fitting
7.9 Summation
Transmission Electron Microscopy–Based Techniques
8.1 Introduction
8.2 High-Resolution Electron Microscopy
8.3 Selected Area Diffraction
8.3.1 Selected Area Diffraction Patterns
8.3.2 Selected Area Diffraction Pole Figures
8.3.3 Small Convergence Beam Electron Diffraction
8.5 Summation
Evaluation and Representation of Microtexture Data
9.1 Introduction
9.2.1 Individual Orientations
9.2.2 Density Distributions
9.3 Representation of Orientations in Euler Space
9.3.1 Individual Orientations
9.3.2 Continuous Distributions
9.4 Representation of Orientations in Rodrigues Space
9.5 General Representation of Misorientation Data
9.5.2 Intragrain Misorientations
9.6.1 Representation of Misorientations in Euler Space
10.3.1 Mechanisms to Locate Sampling Points
10.3.2 Sampling Schedule
10.3.3 Data Storage and Output
10.4 Orientation Mapping and Its Applications
10.4.2 Misorientations and Interfaces
10.4.3 True Grain Size/Shape Distributions
10.4.4 Pattern Quality Maps
10.4.5 Phase Maps
10.5 Orientation Microscopy in the TEM
10.6 Summation
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Crystallographic Analysis of Grain Boundaries
11.2.1 The Coincidence Site Lattice
11.2.2 The Interface–Plane Scheme
11.2.2.1 Tilt Boundaries
11.2.2.2 Twist Boundaries
11.3 Crystallographic Analysis of Surfaces
11.3.1 Sectioning Technique Principles
11.3.1.1 Two-Surface Sectioning
11.3.1.2 Calibrated Serial Sectioning
11.3.1.3 Thin Sections: TEM Methods
11.3.2 Photogrammetric Techniques
11.3.4 Three-Dimensional EBSD
11.4 Orientation Connectivity and Spatial Distribution
11.5 Orientation Relationships between Phases
11.6 Summation
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Texture Analysis by Synchrotron Radiation
12.2.1 Individual Orientations from Laue Patterns
12.3 Texture Analysis by Nondiffraction Techniques
12.3.1 Ultrasonic Velocity
12.3.2 Optical Methods
Appendices
Glossary
References
General Bibliography
Index
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Ebooksclub.org Introduction to Texture Analysis Macro Texture Micro Texture and Orientation Mapping Second Edition

Ebooksclub.org Introduction to Texture Analysis Macro Texture Micro Texture and Orientation Mapping Second Edition

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