But the composite of these two functions is:(
f
◦
g
)(
x
) =
x
−
2 if x is even
,
(
f
◦
g
)(
x
) =
x
+ 2 if x is oddso that
f
◦
g
is of inﬁnite order, so that
f
◦
g
∈ T
. Thus
T
is not a group.
Exercise 2.1.7
Note that the operation on
Z
×
(
Z
/n
Z
) must be addition in order for it to be a group. Every element of
Z
/n
Z
is of ﬁnite order, and every nonzero element of
Z
is of inﬁnite order. So the torsion group must be
T
=
{
1
}×{
Z
/n
Z
}
To show that the set of elements of inﬁnite order together with the identity do not form a subgroup of this directproduct, we simply take the two elements 3
×
0 and
−
2
×
1. Their sum, 1
×
1, is a nonidentity element of ﬁniteorder.
Exercise 2.1.8
Let
H
∪
K
be a subgroup. Proof by contradiction: Suppose neither
H
⊆
K
nor
K
⊆
H
. Then we could ﬁndsome
a
∈
H
−
K
and some
b
∈
K
−
H
. But
ab
∈
H
, for this would imply
a
−
1
ab
=
b
∈
H
; and
ab
∈
K
, for thiswould imply
abb
−
1
=
a
∈
K
. Thus
ab
∈
H
∪
K
, which contradicts our assumption that
H
∪
K
was a group.
Exercise 2.1.9
To show that it’s a subgroup of
GL
, then we can just appeal to basic linear algebra and rely on the facts thatdet(
I
)=1 and det(
AB
)=det(
A
)det(
B
).
Exercise 2.1.10a
Both
H
and
K
contain the identity, so 1
∈
H
∩
K
. If
a,b
∈
H
∩
K
then
a,b
−
1
∈
H
and
a,b
−
1
∈
K
; thus
ab
−
1
∈
H,ab
−
1
∈
K
; therefore
ab
−
1
∈
H
∩
K
.
Exercise 2.1.10b
Let
A
α
be an arbitrary, possibly non-countable collection of subgroups of
G
. All subgroups contain the identity,so 1
∈
α
A
α
. If
a,b
∈
α
A
α
then
a,b
−
1
∈
A
α
for all
α
; thus
ab
−
1
∈
A
α
for all
α
; therefore
ab
−
1
∈
α
A
α
.
Exercise 2.1.11a
This set contains the identity (1,1); and if the set contains (
a
1
,
1) and (
a
2
,
1) then it contains (
a
1
−
a
2
,
1).
Exercise 2.1.11b
This set contains the identity (1,1); and if the set contains (1
,b
1
) and (1
,b
2
) then it contains (1
,b
1
−
b
2
).
Exercise 2.1.11c
This set contains the identity (1,1); and if the set contains (
a
1
,a
1
) and (
a
2
,a
2
) then it contains (
a
1
−
a
2
,a
1
−
a
2
).
Exercise 2.1.12a
This set contains the identity 1
n
= 1, and if it contains
a
n
,b
n
then it contains (
b
−
1
)
n
(from closure underinverses) (
ab
−
1
)
n
(from abelianism).
Exercise 2.1.12b
This set contains the identity 1 since 1
n
= 1, and if it contains
a,b
then
a
n
= 1
,b
n
= 1 and (
b
n
)
−
1
= 1, therefore(
ab
−
1
)
n
= 1 (from abelianism).3