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Solutions to Abstract Algebra - Chapter 2 (Dummit and Foote, 3e)

# Solutions to Abstract Algebra - Chapter 2 (Dummit and Foote, 3e)

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Solutions to Abstract Algebra - Chapter 2 (Dummit and Foote, 3e)
Solutions to Abstract Algebra - Chapter 2 (Dummit and Foote, 3e)

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Solutions to Abstract Algebra (Dummit and Foote 3e)Chapter 2 : Subgroups
Jason Rosendale jason.rosendale@gmail.comFebruary 11, 2012
This work was done as an undergraduate student: if you really don’t understand something in one of theseproofs, it is very possible that it doesn’t make sense because it’s wrong. Any questions or corrections can bedirected to jason.rosendale@gmail.com.
Exercise 2.1.1a
0+0
i
is the identity element of
G
, and
a
+
ai,b
+
bi
G
implies
b
+(
b
)
i
G
with (
a
+
ai
)+(
b
+(
b
)
i
) =(
a
b
) + (
a
b
)
i
G
.
Exercise 2.1.1b
1 is the identity element of
G
, and
a,b
G
implies
|
ab
1
|
=
|
a
||
b
1
|
=
|
1
||
1
|
= 1 so that
ab
G
.
Exercise 2.1.1c
01
is the identity element of
G
, and
a/b,p/q
G
implies
b
|
n
and
q
|
n
so that
b
=
n/x
and
q
=
n/y
for some
x,y
Z
. Thus:
ab
pq
=
axn
pyn
=
ax
pyn
which, when reduced, becomes=(
ax
py
)
/
gcd(
ax
py,n
)
n/
gcd(
ax
py,n
)The denominator of this fraction clearly divides
n
, and thus the fraction is
G
.
Exercise 2.1.1d
01
is the identity element of
G
, and
a/b,p/q
G
implies
ab
pq
=
aq
bpbq
And if
b,q
are relatively prime to
n
then
bq
is also relatively prime to
n
so the fraction is
G
.
Exercise 2.1.1e
1 is the identity element of
G
, and
a,b
G
implies(
ab
)
2
=
a
2
b
2
which is a product of elements of
Q
and is thus an element of
Q
.1

Exercise 2.1.2a
(1 2)(2 3) = (1 2 3), so the set is not closed if
n
3.
Exercise 2.1.2b
(
sr
1
)(
sr
) =
r
2
, so the set is not closed (unless
r
2
= 1, thus the requirement
n
3).
Exercise 2.1.2c
Suppose
n
is composite. Then we can choose
a,b
such that
ab
=
n
with 1
< a < n
. We’re told that there isan element
x
such that
o
(
x
) =
n
. If
{
x
G
| |
x
|
=
n
}
were a subgroup then the requirement of closure wouldrequire that all elements in
{
1
,x,x
2
,...,x
n
1
}
be elements of the subgroup. But
o
(
x
b
) =
a
, so
x
b
is not in theset and thus it is not closed under the operation.
Exercise 2.1.2d
The operation isn’t closed under addition (1+3 is not odd), and not closed under inverses for multiplication(3
1
= 1
/
3
Z
).
Exercise 2.1.2e
The operation isn’t closed. (
2 +
3)
2
= 5 + 2
6.
Exercise 2.1.3a
The identity exists, and each element is its own inverse.
Exercise 2.1.3b
The identity exists,
r
2
is its own inverse, and (
sr
)
1
=
sr
3
.
Exercise 2.1.4
Let
G
=
Q
{
0
}
under the operation of multiplication and let
=
Z
.
is closed under its operation but doesnot contain inverses.
Exercise 2.1.5
By Langrange’s theorem,
|
|
=
n
1 must divide
n
which is not possible when
n >
2.
Exercise 2.1.6
Let
represent the torsion subgroup of
G
. Clearly 1
. Suppose now that
a,b
. There must be ﬁnite
i,j
such that
a
i
=
b
j
= 1. From this, we have:
a
i
=
b
j
= 1 assumed
(
a
i
)
j
= (
b
j
)
i
= 1 1
i
= 1
j
= 1
a
ij
=
b
ij
= 1 algebraic substitution
a
ij
b
ij
= 1
(
ab
)
ij
= 1 from abelianismTo prove that abelianism is necessary, consider the group of bijective functions
Z
Z
. The torsion group
contains every element of ﬁnite order: in particular, it contains the following two bijective functions of order 2:
(
x
) =
x
+ 1 if x is even
,
(
x
) =
x
1 if x is odd
g
(
x
) =
x
1 if x is even
,
(
x
) =
x
+ 1 if x is odd2

But the composite of these two functions is:(
g
)(
x
) =
x
2 if x is even
,
(
g
)(
x
) =
x
+ 2 if x is oddso that
g
is of inﬁnite order, so that
g
∈ T
. Thus
is not a group.
Exercise 2.1.7
Note that the operation on
Z
×
(
Z
/n
Z
) must be addition in order for it to be a group. Every element of
Z
/n
Z
is of ﬁnite order, and every nonzero element of
Z
is of inﬁnite order. So the torsion group must be
=
{
1
}×{
Z
/n
Z
}
To show that the set of elements of inﬁnite order together with the identity do not form a subgroup of this directproduct, we simply take the two elements 3
×
0 and
2
×
1. Their sum, 1
×
1, is a nonidentity element of ﬁniteorder.
Exercise 2.1.8
Let
be a subgroup. Proof by contradiction: Suppose neither
nor
. Then we could ﬁndsome
a
and some
b
. But
ab
, for this would imply
a
1
ab
=
b
; and
ab
, for thiswould imply
abb
1
=
a
. Thus
ab
, which contradicts our assumption that
was a group.
Exercise 2.1.9
To show that it’s a subgroup of
GL
, then we can just appeal to basic linear algebra and rely on the facts thatdet(
)=1 and det(
AB
)=det(
A
)det(
B
).
Exercise 2.1.10a
Both
and
contain the identity, so 1
. If
a,b
then
a,b
1
and
a,b
1
; thus
ab
1
H,ab
1
; therefore
ab
1
.
Exercise 2.1.10b
Let
A
α
be an arbitrary, possibly non-countable collection of subgroups of
G
. All subgroups contain the identity,so 1
α
A
α
. If
a,b
α
A
α
then
a,b
1
A
α
for all
α
; thus
ab
1
A
α
for all
α
; therefore
ab
1
α
A
α
.
Exercise 2.1.11a
This set contains the identity (1,1); and if the set contains (
a
1
,
1) and (
a
2
,
1) then it contains (
a
1
a
2
,
1).
Exercise 2.1.11b
This set contains the identity (1,1); and if the set contains (1
,b
1
) and (1
,b
2
) then it contains (1
,b
1
b
2
).
Exercise 2.1.11c
This set contains the identity (1,1); and if the set contains (
a
1
,a
1
) and (
a
2
,a
2
) then it contains (
a
1
a
2
,a
1
a
2
).
Exercise 2.1.12a
This set contains the identity 1
n
= 1, and if it contains
a
n
,b
n
then it contains (
b
1
)
n
(from closure underinverses) (
ab
1
)
n
(from abelianism).
Exercise 2.1.12b
This set contains the identity 1 since 1
n
= 1, and if it contains
a,b
then
a
n
= 1
,b
n
= 1 and (
b
n
)
1
= 1, therefore(
ab
1
)
n
= 1 (from abelianism).3