Chapter 1 Categories1.1. Lexical categories1.1.1. Verbs and Nouns – Basic distinctions
Properties distinguishing between V and N
lack of morphological clues.
syntactic, distributional criteriaa.
Negation and A-not-A questionb.
Ability to take an NP object: V can assign case, but N does not. (e.g.,
fanyi, fanxiu, yanjiu, chuli, shuoming, guanxin, danxin,
High degree of polysemya.
Possible candidate for an ‘exoskeletal’ approach or ‘constructionist’ approach,according to which the Lexical items are unspecified or underspecified for theirsyntactic categories. (cf. Borer 2005)b.
Or nominalization or denominalization to relate these forms?
But many nouns and verbs do not exhibit polysemy: hence such a ‘strong’constructionist approach is totally inappropriate.
da-si ‘hit-dead’, ti-po ‘kick-broken’, qie-kai ‘cut-open’ (verbs)
huoji ‘turkey’, niurou ‘beef’, shuben ‘book’, pingguo ‘apple’
?ta de qie-kai xigua
‘his cutting the watermelon open’; *
ta dui xigua deqie-kai
‘his cutting open of the watermelon’.
action nominalization vs.gerundive nominalization. (In gerundive nominalization, VP or IP isnominalized, but V is not.)
N and V are two proto-categories, generally
(1) Feature-based characterization of lexical categories (preliminary)[N] + + - -[V] - + - +FeatureCategory N?? V
Required of NP/DPs used to denote locations, except those NP/DPs that areinherently locational. Object-denoting NPs are ‘pure’ in object-denoting.(“analytic”)