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Data Collection Methods

Data Collection Methods

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Published by Mart Juaresa Yambao
handouts for this week's discussion
handouts for this week's discussion

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Published by: Mart Juaresa Yambao on Feb 12, 2012
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05/13/2014

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Nursing Research (Week 11)
 
mjcy,rn,man
DATA COLLECTION METHODS
Types of Data
 
Prim
a
r
 y 
y
 
aw data that a
r
e collected f 
ir
st-hand by the
i
nvest
ig
ato
r
us
i
n
g
tools o
r
fo
rm
s des
ig
ned by h
im/
he
r
 
y
 
Data a
r
e collected
m
a
i
nly to se
r
 ve the pu
r
poses of the
i
nvest
ig
ato
r
 
 
S
econda
r
 y 
y
 
Data that have been p
r
ev 
i
ously collected by anothe
r
pe
r
son o
r
a
g
ency fo
r
othe
r
pu
r
posesand w 
i
ll be used by the
i
nvest
ig
ato
r
fo
r
h
i
s study Data Collect
i
on Inst
r
u
m
ents
y
 
S
hould be clea
r
ly 
i
dent
i
i
ed and desc
ri
bed
y
 
S
co
ri
n
g
p
r
ocedu
r
es and the
r
an
g
e of poss
i
ble sco
r
es on the
i
nst
r
u
m
ent should also be
i
ncluded
y
 
It
m
ust be val
i
d,
r
el
i
able, sens
i
t
i
 ve, and spec
i
i
c
y
 
Pi
lot study 
r
esults should be
i
ncluded fo
r
any newly developed o
r
 
r
ev 
i
sed
i
nst
r
u
m
ent
y
 
S
tanda
r
d
iz
ed ve
r
sus
r
esea
r
ch-const
r
ucted
y
 
M
ethods of data collect
i
on
y
 
Prim
a
r
 y ( Adv. Bette
r
qual
i
ty, D
i
s.
M
o
r
e t
im
e,
m
o
r
e cost)
 
O
bse
r
 vat
i
on
 
Ex 
t
r
act
i
on of Info
rm
at
i
on f 
r
o
m
subjects th
r
ou
g
h s
im
ple v 
i
sual obse
r
 vat
i
on o
r
useof appa
r
atus
 
O
bse
r
 vat
i
on of behav 
i
o
r
o
r
p
r
act
i
ces
 
P
hys
i
cal e
 x 
a
mi
nat
i
on
 
P
e
r
fo
rmi
n
g
labo
r
ato
r
 y test
 
equ
ir
es sk 
i
ll, equ
i
p
m
ent o
r
fac
i
l
i
t
i
es
 
 Advanta
g
es
 
If 
i
nfo
rm
ants a
r
e unable to p
r
ov 
i
de
i
nfo
rm
at
i
on (
Ex 
. bab
i
es¶ behav 
i
o
r
)
 
If 
i
nfo
rm
ants would
gi
 ve
i
ne
 x 
act answe
r
s (
Ex 
. Blood p
r
essu
r
e)
 
If people
r
es
i
st quest
i
ons o
r
a
r
e unw 
i
ll
i
n
g
to answe
r
 
 
Can
r
eco
r
d events as they occu
r
 
 
D
i
sadvanta
g
es
 
I
m
poss
i
ble to p
r
ed
i
ct occu
rr
ence of events
 
Ex 
. Invest
ig
ato
r
 
m
ay not be a
r
ound when
i
t happens
 
S
o
m
e event not access
i
ble to d
ir
ect obse
r
 vat
i
on (
Ex 
.
S
e
 x 
ual behav 
i
o
r
)
 
Can¶t be used fo
r
events of the past
 
Can¶t be used
i
n study 
i
n
g
op
i
n
i
ons and att
i
tudes
 
e
m
oval of 
O
bse
r
 ve
r
¶ B
i
as ± use of ca
m
e
r
a o
r
tape
r
eco
r
de
r
 
 
Inte
r
 v 
i
ew 
 
O
ne-to-one encounte
r
between the
i
nte
r
 v 
i
ewe
r
and
r
espondent fac
i
l
i
tated by thehelp of a l
i
st of quest
i
ons wh
i
ch
m
ay be st
r
uctu
r
ed o
r
not
 
 Advanta
g
es:
 
U
sed w 
i
th al
m
ost all secto
r
s of populat
i
on
 
 Y 
i
eld bette
r
nu
m
be
r
of 
r
espondents
 
Can
m
ake obse
r
 vat
i
ons du
ri
n
g
 
i
nte
r
 v 
i
ew 
 
P
e
rmi
ts cla
ri
i
cat
i
on of quest
i
ons o
r
 
r
esponses
 
Nursing Research (Week 11)
 
mjcy,rn,man
 
D
i
sadvanta
g
es:
 
E
nta
i
ls
gr
eate
r
e
 x 
pense
 
Can¶t
r
each a
gr
eate
r
nu
m
be
r
of people
 
P
oss
i
b
i
l
i
ty that
r
esponses can be
i
nfluenced by the att
i
tude of the
i
nte
r
 v 
i
ewe
r
 
 
Inte
r
 v 
i
ewe
r
 
m
ay 
i
nject so
m
e of he
r
op
i
n
i
ons
 
Q
uest
i
onna
ir
e
 
Conta
i
ns w 
ri
tten quest
i
ons w 
i
th spaces p
r
ov 
i
ded fo
r
the
r
espondents to w 
ri
te theanswe
r
s
 
Can be conducted
i
n d
i
ffe
r
ent ways:
 
S
end quest
i
onna
ir
e to
r
espondents
 
M
a
i
l, hand del
i
 ve
r
, channel th
r
ou
g
h a po
i
nt pe
r
son
 
G
athe
ri
n
g
 
r
espondents
i
n one place at one t
im
e
 
I
m
po
r
tant:
M
ust have clea
r
 
i
nst
r
uct
i
ons on how to acco
m
pl
i
sh fo
rm
 
 
 Advanta
g
es:
 
Can be ad
mi
n
i
ste
r
ed to a la
rg
e
gr
oup s
im
ultaneously ± fo
r
scatte
r
edpopulat
i
on
 
Conf 
i
dence at anony 
mi
ty 
 
 Avo
i
ds
i
nfluence e
 x 
e
r
ted by the
i
nte
r
 v 
i
ewe
r
 
 
D
i
sadvanta
g
es:
 
esponse
r
ates a
r
e usually low 
 
O
nly fo
r
the l
i
te
r
ate
 
Co
m
pleteness of data not always assu
r
ed
 
P
otent
i
al p
r
oble
m
of 
i
ncohe
r
ent answe
r
s
y
 
S
econda
r
 y (Adv. Cheape
r
, less t
im
e, D
i
s. Less qual
i
ty)
y
 
eco
r
ds
r
ev 
i
ew 
 
Data a
r
e taken f 
r
o
m
ava
i
lable
r
eco
r
ds, such as:
 
hosp
i
tal
r
eco
r
ds
 
e
m
ploy 
m
ent
r
eco
r
ds
 
patholo
g
 y lo
g
books
 
census
 
r
e
gi
st
ri
es of v 
i
tal events
 
r
epo
r
ts of not
i
i
able d
i
seases
 
publ
i
cat
i
ons of health stat
i
st
i
cs
 
r
e
gi
st
ri
es fo
r
ce
r
ta
i
n d
i
seases
 
data f 
r
o
m
p
r
ev 
i
ous stud
i
es
 
 Advanta
g
es
 
E
cono
mi
cal
 
N
o coope
r
at
i
on needed f 
r
o
m
subject
 
Can establ
i
sh t
r
ends ove
r
pe
ri
ods of t
im
e
 
M
aybe used as ³basel
i
ne´ data
 
D
i
sadvanta
g
es
 
P
otent
i
al p
r
oble
m
i
th access
 
Issue of conf 
i
dent
i
al
i
ty 
m
ay a
ri
se
 
Pr
oble
m
i
th accu
r
acy 
 
Nursing Research (Week 11)
 
mjcy,rn,man
 
Pr
oble
m
i
th co
m
pleteness
 
D
i
ffe
r
ent def 
i
n
i
t
i
on of te
rm
s
 
Data
m
ay be out-dated
Criteria for Selection of Data-Collection Instrument
 A.
O
bject
i
 ves of the study B. Feas
i
b
i
l
i
ty 
 /
 
Pr
act
i
cal
i
ty 
y
 
 Acceptab
i
l
i
ty of p
r
ocedu
r
e ±
i
nconven
i
ence, unpleasantness
y
 
N
eed fo
r
sk 
i
lls and t
r
a
i
n
i
n
g
 
y
 
S
ou
r
ce
y
 
Cost
y
 
T
im
eC. Val
i
d
i
ty 
 /
el
i
ab
i
l
i
ty 
y
 
 Accu
r
ate
i
nfo
rm
at
i
on
y
 
Co
m
pleteness
y
 
el
i
ab
i
l
i
ty 
 
Conce
r
ns w 
i
th cons
i
stency and stab
i
l
i
ty 
 
The de
gr
ee of 
r
el
i
ab
i
l
i
ty 
i
s usually dete
rmi
ned between two sets of sco
r
es o
r
between the
r
at
i
n
g
sof two jud
g
es
 
Types of 
el
i
ab
i
l
i
ty 
 
Test-
r
etest (stab
i
l
i
ty)
r
el
i
ab
i
l
i
ty 
 
 W 
hen a test
i
s
gi
 ven to the sa
m
e sa
m
ples on two d
i
ffe
r
ent occas
i
ons and these two testsshow a h
ig
h de
gr
ee of co
rr
elat
i
on
 
S
tab
i
l
i
ty ove
r
t
im
e (
Ex 
. The
rm
o
m
ete
r
)
 
Inte
rr
ate
r
(equ
i
 valence)
r
el
i
ab
i
l
i
ty 
 
Co
m
pa
ri
sons of 
r
ate
r
s o
r
obse
r
 ve
r
r
at
i
n
g
us
i
n
g
the sa
m
e
i
nst
r
u
m
ent (2 o
r
 
m
o
r
e
r
ate
r
s)
 
Inte
r
nal Cons
i
stency 
r
el
i
ab
i
l
i
ty 
 
 Add
r
ess the e
 x 
tent to wh
i
ch all
i
te
m
s on an
i
nst
r
u
m
ent
m
easu
r
e the sa
m
e va
ri
able
 
S
pl
i
t-half 
r
el
i
ab
i
l
i
ty 
 
The
m
ost popula
r
test of 
r
el
i
ab
i
l
i
ty 
 
S
i
n
g
le ad
mi
n
i
st
r
at
i
on of test
 
Test
i
s spl
i
t
i
nto halves and sco
r
ed sepa
r
ately 
 
Co
rr
elat
i
on
i
s co
m
puted
y
 
 Val
i
d
i
ty 
 
The val
i
d
i
ty of 
i
nst
r
u
m
ent conce
r
ns
i
ts ab
i
l
i
ty to
g
athe
r
the data that
i
s
i
ntended to
g
athe
r
 
 
The
gr
eate
r
the val
i
d
i
ty of an
i
nst
r
u
m
ent, the
m
o
r
e conf 
i
dence you can have that the
i
nst
r
u
m
ent w 
i
ll obta
i
n data that w 
i
ll answe
r
the
r
esea
r
ch quest
i
ons o
r
test the
r
esea
r
chhypothes
i
s.
 
Types of Val
i
d
i
ty 
 
Face Val
i
d
i
ty 
o
 
 An
i
nst
r
u
m
ent
i
s sa
i
d to be val
i
d when an e
 x 
a
mi
nat
i
on shows that
i
t
i
s
m
easu
ri
n
g
what
i
t
i
s supposed to
m
easu
r
e

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