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Jiangbo Zhou and Lixin Tian- Solitons, Peakons, and Periodic Cuspons of a Generalized Degasperis-Procesi Equation

Jiangbo Zhou and Lixin Tian- Solitons, Peakons, and Periodic Cuspons of a Generalized Degasperis-Procesi Equation

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Hindawi Publishing CorporationMathematical Problems in EngineeringVolume 2009, Article ID 249361,13pagesdoi:10.1155/2009/249361
Research Article
Solitons, Peakons, and Periodic Cuspons of aGeneralized Degasperis-Procesi Equation
 Jiangbo Zhou and Lixin Tian
Nonlinear Scientific Research Center, Faculty of Science, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013, China
Correspondence should be addressed to Jiangbo Zhou,zhoujiangbo@yahoo.cnReceived 24 November 2008; Accepted 23 February 2009Recommended by Elbert E. Neher MacauWe employ the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems to investigate the exact travellingwavesolutionsofageneralizedDegasperis-Procesiequation
u
t
u
xxt
4
uu
x
γ 
u
u
xx
x
3
u
x
u
xx
uu
xxx
. The implicit expression of smooth soliton solutions is given. The explicit expressions ofpeaked soliton solutions and periodic cuspon solutions are also obtained. Further, we show therelationship among the smooth soliton solutions, the peaked soliton solutions, and the periodiccusponsolutions.Thephysicalrelevanceofthefoundsolutionsandthereasonwhythesesolutionscan exist in this equation are also given.Copyright
q
2009 J. Zhou and L. Tian. This is an open access article distributed under the CreativeCommons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction inany medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Introduction
Recently, Degasperis and Procesi
1
derived a nonlinear dispersive equation
u
t
u
xxt
4
uu
x
3
u
x
u
xx
uu
xxx
1.1
which is called the Degasperis-Procesi equation. Here
u
t,x
represents the fluid velocity attime
t
in the
x
direction in appropriate nondimensional units
or, equivalently the heightof the water’s free surface above a flat bottom
. The nonlinear convection term
uu
x
in
1.1
causes the steepening of wave form, whereas the nonlinear dispersion e
ect term3
u
x
u
xx
uu
xxx

1
/
2
u
2
xxx
in
1.1
makes the wave form spread. Equation
1.1
can beregarded as a model for nonlinear shallow water dynamics. Degasperis et al.
2
showed thatthe
1.1
is integrable by deriving a Lax pair and a bi-Hamiltonian structure for it. Yin provedlocal well posedness to
1.1
with initial data
u
0
s
R
,
s >
3 on the line
3
and on thecircle
4
. The global existence of strong solutions and weak solutions to
1.1
is investigatedin
410
. The solution to Cauchy problem of
1.1
can also blow up in finite time whenthe initial data satisfies certain sign condition
710
. Vakhnenko and Parkes
11
obtained
 
2 Mathematical Problems in Engineeringperiodic and solitary-wave solutions of
1.1
. Matsuno
12,13
obtained multisoliton, cuspand loop soliton solutions of
1.1
. Lundmark and Szmigielski
14
investigated multipeakonsolutions of
1.1
. Lenells
15
classified all weak travelling wave solutions. The shock wavesolutions of
1.1
are investigated in
16,17
.Yu and Tian
18
investigated the following generalized Degasperis-Procesi equation:
u
t
u
xxt
4
uu
x
3
u
x
u
xx
uu
xxx
γu
xxx
,
1.2
where
γ 
is a real constant, and the term
u
xxx
denotes the linear dispersive e
ect. Theyobtained peaked soliton solutions and period cuspon solutions of
1.2
. Unfortunately, theydid not obtain smooth soliton solutions of
1.2
.In this paper, we are interesting in the following generalized Degasperis-Procesiequation:
u
t
u
xxt
4
uu
x
γ 
u
u
xx
x
3
u
x
u
xx
uu
xxx
,
1.3
where
γ 
is a real constant, the term
u
x
denotes the dissipative e
ect and the term
u
xxx
represents the linear dispersive e
ect. Employing the bifurcation theory of planar dynamicalsystems, we obtain the analytic expressions of smooth solitons, peaked solitons, and periodcuspons of
1.3
. Our work covers and supplements the results obtained in
18
.The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. InSection 2, using the travellingwave transformation, we transform
1.3
into the planar dynamical system
2.3
and thendiscuss bifurcations of phase portraits of system
2.3
. InSection 3, we obtain the implicitexpressionofsmoothsolitons,theexplicitexpressionsofpeakedsolitonsandperiodiccusponsolutions. At the same time, we show that the limits of smooth solitons and periodic cuspwaves are peaked solitons. InSection 4, we discuss the physical relevance of the foundsolutions and give the reason why these solutions can exist in
1.3
.
2. Bifurcations of Phase Portraits of System (2.3)
We look for travelling wave solutions of
1.3
in the form of
u
x,t
ϕ
x
ct
ϕ
ξ
, where
c
is the wave speed and
ξ
x
ct
. Substituting
u
ϕ
ξ
into
1.3
, we obtain

4
ϕϕ
3
ϕ
ϕ

ϕϕ

γϕ
γϕ

0
.
2.1
By integrating
2.1
once we have
ϕ

ϕ
c
γ 
c
γ 
ϕ
2
ϕ
2
ϕ
2
,
2.2
where
is the integral constant.
 
Mathematical Problems in Engineering 3Let
y
ϕ
, then we get the following planar dynamical system:
y,dy
c
γ 
ϕ
2
ϕ
2
y
2
ϕ
c
γ ,
2.3
with a first integral
ϕ,y
ϕ
c
γ 
2
y
2
ϕ
2
h,
2.4
where
h
is a constant.Note that
2.3
has a singular line
ϕ
c
γ 
. To avoid the line temporarily we maketransformation
ϕ
c
γ 
. Under this transformation,
2.3
becomes
ϕ
c
γ 
y,dy
c
γ 
ϕ
2
ϕ
2
y
2
.
2.5
System
2.3
and system
2.5
have the same first integral as
2.4
. Consequently,system
2.5
has the same topological phase portraits as system
2.3
except for the straightline
ϕ
c
γ 
. Obviously,
ϕ
c
γ 
is an invariant straight-line solution for system
2.5
.For a fixed
h
,
2.4
determines a set of invariant curves of system
2.5
. As
h
isvaried,
2.4
determinesdi
erentfamiliesoforbitsofsystem
2.5
havingdi
erentdynamical behaviors. Let
M
ϕ
e
,y
e
be the coe
cient matrix of the linearized system of
2.5
at theequilibrium point
ϕ
e
,y
e
, then
M
ϕ
e
,y
e
y
e
ϕ
e
c
γ 
4
ϕ
e
c
γ 
2
y
e
,
2.6
and at this equilibrium point, we have
ϕ
e
,y
e
det
M
ϕ
e
,y
e
2
y
2
e
ϕ
e
c
γ 

4
ϕ
e
c
γ 
,p
ϕ
e
,y
e
trace
M
ϕ
e
,y
e

y
e
.
2.7
By the qualitative theory of di
erential equations
see
19

, for an equilibrium point of aplanar dynamical system, if
J <
0, then this equilibrium point is a saddle point; it is a centerpoint if
J >
0 and
p
0; if
0 and the Poincar´e index of the equilibrium point is 0, then it isa cusp.

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