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Lixin Tian, Jinling Fan and Ruihua Tian- The Attractor on Viscosity Peakon b-Family of Equations

Lixin Tian, Jinling Fan and Ruihua Tian- The Attractor on Viscosity Peakon b-Family of Equations

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ISSN
1749-3889 (print), 1749-3897 (online)
International Journal of Nonlinear Science
Vol.4(2007) No.3,pp.163-170
The Attractor on Viscosity Peakon b-Family of Equations
Lixin Tian
, Jinling Fan, Ruihua Tian
Nonlinear Scientific Research Center, Jiangsu UniversityZhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212013, P.R. China
(Received 26 July 2007, accepted 18 September 2007)
Abstract
: We establish the existence of global solution to viscosity peakon b-Family of equations in
L
2
un-der the periodical boundary condition and get the existence of the global attractor of semi-group to solutionon viscosity peakon b-Family of equations in
2
.
Keywords:
Camassa-Holm equation, Degasperis-Procesi equation, peakon b-Family of equations, Globalsolution, attractor, viscosity
1 Introduction
Holm and Staley[1,21] studied a one-dimensional version of active fluid transport that is described by thefollowing family of 1+1 evolutionary equations
m
t
+
um
x
  
convection
+
bu
x
m
   
 
 
stretching
=
εm
  
vis
cos
ity
,u
=
g
m
(1.1)where the fluid velocity
u
(
t,x
)
is defined on the real line vanishing at spatial infinity and
u
=
g
m
denotethe convolution (or filtering)
u
(
x
) =
 
−∞
g
(
x
y
)
m
(
y
)
dy
which relates velocity
u
to momentum density
m
by integration against kernel
g
(
x
)
over the real line.Herethe kernel
g
is chosen to be the Green’s function for the Helmholtz operator on the line, that is,
g
(
x
) =
12
e
−|
x
|
. This means
m
=
u
u
xx
. The family of equations (1.1) is characterized by the kernel
g
andthe real dimensionless constant
b
, which is the ratio of stretching to convective transport. The parameter
b
is also the number of covariant dimensions associated with the momentum density
m
. The function
g
(
x
)
will determine the traveling wave shape and length scale for Eq.(1.1), while the constant
b
will providea balance or bifurcation parameter for the nonlinear solution behavior. The quadratic term in Eq.(1.1)represent the competition, or balance, in fluid convection between nonlinear transport and amplification dueto
b
-dimensional stretching. On the other hand, in a recent study of soliton equations, it is found that Eq.(1.1)for any
b
=
1
is included in the family of shallow water equations at quadratic order accuracy that areasymptotically equivalent under Kodama transformations[22].If 
b
= 2
, Eq.(1.1) becomes the Camassa-Holm(CH) equation of the form
u
t
u
txx
+ 3
uu
x
= 2
u
x
u
xx
+
uu
xxx
t >
0
, x
R
(1.2)Eq.(1.2) has a bi-Hamiltionian structure[23] and is completely integrable([2][6]). In [11] Danping Ding,Lixin Tian researched the solution of 1D Navier-Stokes-alpha model,or, viscosity Camassa-Holm equationand got the existence of the global attractor of viscosity Camassa-Holm equation.If 
b
= 3
, Eq.(1.1) becomes the Degasperis-Procesi(DP) equation of the form
Corresponding author
.
E-mail address
: tianlx@ujs.edu.cnCopyrightc
World Academic Press, World Academic UnionIJNS.2007.12.15/108
 
164
International Journal of Nonlinear Science,Vol.4(2007),No.3,pp. 163-170
u
t
u
txx
+ 4
uu
x
= 3
u
x
u
xx
+
uu
xxx
,t >
0
, x
R
(1.3)It is completely integrable [13-18]. Despite the similarities to the Camassa-Holm equation, we wouldlike to point out that these two equations are truly different. One of the important features of Eq.(1.3) isthat it has not only peaked solitons
u
(
t,x
) =
ce
−|
x
ct
|
,c >
0
but also shock peakons [19,20] of the form
u
(
t,x
) =
1
t
+
k
sgn
(
x
)
e
−|
x
|
,k >
0
. On the other hand, the Lax pair and conservation laws of the twoequations are also different [12]. The existence of the global attractor of the viscosity Degasperis-Procesiequation under the periodic boundary condition has been studied[5].We have found it is convenient to rewrite Eq.(1.1) as the following form
u
t
u
txx
+ (
b
+ 1)
uu
x
=
bu
x
u
xx
+
uu
xxx
,t >
0
,x
R
(1.4)for a real parameter
b
, which includes both the Camassa-Holm equation(1.2)(b=2) and the Degasperis-Procesi equation(1.4) (b=3) as special cases. Since it arises from (1.1) when the peakon kernel
g
(
x
) =
12
e
−|
x
|
is chosen, we refer to (1.4) as the peakon b-family of equations.It is shown in [14] that all these equations in the peakon b-family have not only the peakon solutions
u
(
x,t
) =
ce
−|
x
ct
|
,
c >
0
, but also multipeakon solutions
u
(
x,t
) =
k
=1
 p
k
(
t
)
e
−|
x
q
k
|
. For an arbitraryconstant
b
,
p
k
and
q
k
are not canonical variables but satisfy the dynamical system
p
k
=
(
b
1)
∂G
∂q
k
,q
k
=
∂G
∂p
k
, where the generating function
G
is given by
G
=
12
 j,k
=1
k
 p
 j
e
−|
q
j
q
k
|
The goal of the present paper is to study the existence of the global attractor of the viscosity b-Familyof equations. The equation is as following:
u
t
u
xxt
ε
(
u
u
xx
)
xx
+
k
(
u
u
xx
)
x
+ (
b
+ 1)
uu
x
=
bu
x
u
xx
+
uu
xxx
u
(
x,
0) =
u
0
(
x
)
(1.5)where
t >
0
,x
,
Ω = [0
,L
]
The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. In section 2, we introduce the main definitions.Section 3 establishes the global solution to Eq.(1.5). The global attractor of Eq.(1.5) is studied in section 4.
2 Definitions
In this paper, we denote
(
·
,
·
)
the
L
2
inner product and by
.
the corresponding
L
2
norm,
u
m
(Ω)
=
D
m
u
L
2
(Ω)
where
D
is the first-order operator. The inner product here is equivalent to the nature innerproduct in
m
(Ω)
when
mes
(Ω)
<
+
. In this paper, we denote
u
L
2
(Ω)
|
u
|
,
Du
L
2
(Ω)
u
,
D
m
u
L
2
(Ω)
|
D
m
u
|
.
Denote
B
(
u,v
) =
u
v
, where
is the
Hamilton
operator. Here we only studythe one dimensional equation, and then
u
=
u
x
. Denote
b
(
u,v,w
) = (
B
(
u,v
)
,w
) =
 
(
u
v
)
wdx.
Noticing that in the case of periodic boundary condition, we have
(
B
(
u,v
)
,w
) =
(
B
(
u,w
)
,v
)
(
B
(
w,u
)
,v
)
,
(
B
(
v,u
)
,w
) =
(
B
(
w,v
)
,u
)
(
B
(
v,w
)
,u
)
,
Then
(
B
(
u,v
)
,u
) =
2(
B
(
u,u
)
,v
)
,
(
B
(
u,v
)
,u
) =
2(
B
(
v,u
)
,u
)(
B
(
u,u
)
,v
) = (
B
(
v,u
)
,u
)
,
(
B
(
u,u
)
,u
) = 0
Denote
A
=
,
is the Laplace operator,
v
=
u
+
Au.
In the case of periodic boundary condition, Eq.(1.5) can be denoted as
dvdt
+
εAv
+
k
v
+
B
(
u,v
) +
bB
(
v,u
) = 0
(2.1)
u
(
x,
0) =
u
0
(2.2)
 IJNS email for contribution:
editor@nonlinearscience.org.uk 
 
 L. Tian, J. Fan, R. Tian: The Attractor on Viscosity Peakon b-Family of Equations
165
u
(0
,t
) =
u
(
L,t
)
,u
(0
,t
) =
u
(
L,t
)
,u

(0
,t
) =
u

(
L,t
)
(2.3)where
A
is a self-adjoint positive operator with compact inverse. The characteristic value of 
A
is
λ
 j
,
0
<λ
1
λ
2
···
,λ
 j
→ ∞
when
j
,
Aw
 j
=
λ
 j
w
 j
,
w
 j
is the corresponding characteristic vector of 
A
.
3 Global solution
Theorem 3.1
With
u
0
l
(
R
)
,l
2
 , Eq.(2.1)-(2.3) has a global solution.
In this section, we use the Galerkin procedure to prove the existence of global solution.Let
{
φ
 j
}
 j
=1
be an orthonormal basis of 
consisting of eigenfunctions of the operator
A
. The Galerkinprocedure for Eq.(2.1)-(2.3) is the ordinary differential system,
dv
m
dt
+
εAv
m
+
k
v
m
+
p
m
B
(
u
m
,v
m
) +
p
m
bB
(
v
m
,u
m
) = 0
(3.1)
u
m
(0) =
p
m
u
(0)
(3.2)where
v
m
=
u
m
+
Au
m
. Since the nonlinear term is quadratic in
u
m
, then based on the classical theory of ordinary differential equations, the system (3.1) has a unique solution for a short interval of time
(0
,
m
)
.Our purpose is to show that the solution of (3.1) remains finite for all positive times which implies that
m
=
.We take the inner product of (3.1) with
u
m
in
to obtain,
12
ddt
|
u
m
|
2
+
u
m
2
+
ε
u
m
2
+
|
Au
m
|
2
+
p
m
(
b
2)(
B
(
u
m
,u
m
)
,Au
m
) = 0
(3.3)We get inequalities from (3.3)
12
ddt
|
u
m
|
2
+
u
m
2
+
ε
u
m
2
+
|
Au
m
|
2
ε
(
b
2)2
u
m
2
+
|
Au
m
|
2
+
k
22
(
b
2)2
ε
|
u
m
|
2
+
u
m
2
2
(3.4)where
k
1
,k
2
are constants.Similar to [5], we know
|
u
m
|
2
+
u
m
2
r
1
, where
r
1
is a constant.Integrating (3.4) over the interval
[
t,t
+
r
]
 
t
+
rt
u
m
(
s
)
2
+
|
Au
m
(
s
)
|
2
ds
(
b
2)
k
22
ε
r
21
r
+
r
1
4
ε
εb
r
2
(3.5)Now, take the inner product of (3.1) with
Au
m
in
to obtain,
12
ddt
u
m
2
+
|
Au
m
|
2
+
ε
|
Au
m
|
2
+
|
Au
m
|
2
+
p
m
(
B
(
u
m
,v
m
)
,Au
m
)+
bp
m
(
B
(
v
m
,u
m
)
,Au
m
) +
k
(
v
m
,Au
m
) = 0
Based on
Y oung
inequality, we have
12
ddt
u
m
2
+
|
Au
m
|
2
+
ε
|
Au
m
|
2
+
|
Au
m
|
2
ελ
1
u
m
2
+
|
Au
m
|
2
+
c
5
u
m
|
Au
m
|
u
m
2
+
|
Au
m
|
2
(3.6)From
Y oung
inequality,
Poincare
inequality
|
Au
m
|
2
> λ
1
u
m
2
,
|
Au
m
|
2
> λ
1
|
Au
m
|
2
and (3.6)we get
ddt
u
m
2
+
|
Au
m
|
2
c
5
u
m
2
+
|
Au
m
|
2
2
(3.7)From
Gronwall
s
inequality we have
u
m
2
+
|
Au
m
|
2
r
2
r
exp(
r
2
c
5
)
r
3
,t > t
0
+
r
(3.8)
 IJNS homepage:
http://www.nonlinearscience.org.uk/ 

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