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Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China)

52

(2009) pp. 1004–1012c

Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd Vol. 52, No. 6, December 15, 2009

Quasi-Periodic Structures Based on Symmetrical Lucas Function of (2+1)-DimensionalModiﬁed Dispersive Water-Wave System

Emad A-B. ABDEL-SALAM

∗

Assiut University, Department of Mathematics, New Valley Faculty of Education, El-Kharga, New Valley, Egypt

(Received December 24, 2008)

Abstract

By introducing the Lucas–Riccati method and a linear variable separation method, new variable separationsolutions with arbitrary functions are derived for a (2+1)-dimensional modiﬁed dispersive water-wave system. The mainidea of this method is to express the solutions of this system as polynomials in the solution of the Riccati equation thatthe symmetrical Lucas functions satisfy. From the variable separation solution and by selecting appropriate functions,some novel Jacobian elliptic wave structure with variable modulus and their interactions with dromions and peakons are investigated.

PACS numbers:

02.30.Jr, 05.45.Yv, 03.65.Ge

Key words:

Lucas functions, quasi-periodic structure, variable separation excitations, modiﬁed dispersivewater-wave system

1 Introduction

Due to the wide applications of soliton theory in math-ematics, physics, chemistry, biology, communications, as-trophysics, and geophysics, the study of integrable modelshas attracted much attention of many mathematicians andphysicists. To ﬁnd some exact explicit soliton solutionsfor integrable models is one of the most important andsigniﬁcant tasks. There has been a great amount of activ-ities aiming to ﬁnd methods for exact solution of nonlin-ear partial diﬀerential equations (NLPDEs). Such includethe B¨acklund transformation, Darboux transformation,

[1]

various tanh methods,

[2

−

6]

various Jacobi elliptic functionmethods,

[7

−

8]

multi-linear variable separation approach,

[9]

Painlev´e property, homogeneous balance method, similar-ity reduction method and so on.

[41

−

43]

For a given NPLDE with independent variables

x

=(

x

0

=

t, x

1

, x

2

, x

3

,..., x

n

) and dependent variable

u

,

P

(

u, u

t

, u

x

i

, u

x

i

x

j

, ...

) = 0

,

(1)where

P

is in general a polynomial function of its argu-ment, and the subscripts denote the partial derivatives, byusing the traveling wave transformation, Eq. (1) possessesthe following ans¨atz,

u

=

u

(

ξ

)

, ξ

=

m

i

=0

k

i

x

i

,

(2)where

k

i

,

i

= 0

,

1

,

2

, ..., m

are all arbitrary constants.Substituting Eq. (2) into Eq. (1) yields an ordinary diﬀer-ential equation (ODE):

O

(

u

(

ξ

)

, u

(

ξ

)

ξ

, u

(

ξ

)

ξξ

, ...

) = 0

.

Then

u

(

ξ

) is expandedinto a polynomial in

g

(

ξ

)

u

(

ξ

) =

F

(

g

(

ξ

)) =

n

i

=0

a

i

g

i

(

ξ

)

,

(3)where

a

i

are constants to be determined and

n

is ﬁxedby balancing the linear term of the highest order with thenonlinear term in Eq. (1). If we suppose

g

(

ξ

) = tanh

ξ

,

g

(

ξ

) = sech

ξ

, and

g

(

ξ

) = sn

ξ

or

g

(

ξ

) = cn

ξ

respec-tively, then the corresponding approach is usually calledthe tanh-function method, the sech-function method, andthe Jacobian-function method. Although the Jacobian el-liptic function method is more improved than the tanh-function method and the sech-function method, the re-peated calculations are often tedious since the diﬀerentfunction

g

(

ξ

) should be treated in a repeated way. Themain idea of the mapping approach is that,

g

(

ξ

) is not as-sumed to be a speciﬁc function, such as tanh, sech, sn, andcn, etc., but a solution of a mapping equation such as theRiccati equation (

g

ξ

=

g

2

+

a

0

), or a solution of the cubicnon-linear Klein Gordon (

g

2

ξ

=

a

4

g

4

+

a

2

g

2

+

a

0

), or asolution of the general elliptic equation (

g

2

ξ

=

4

i

=0

a

i

g

i

),where

a

i

(

i

= 0

,

1

,...,

4) are all arbitraryconstants. Usingthe mapping relations and the solutions of these mappingequations, one can obtain many explicit and exact trav-eling wave solutions of Eq. (1). Now an interesting orimportant question is that whether the localized excita-tions based on the former multilinear approach

[9]

can bederived by the latter mapping approach, which is usuallyused to search for traveling wave solutions. The crucialtechnic is how to obtain some solutions of Eq. (1) withcertain arbitraryfunctions, also the quite rich localized ex-citations, such as lumps, dromions, peakons, compactons,foldons, ring solitons, fractal solitons, chaotic solitons andso on

[9

−

14

,

17

−

31

,

39]

are obtained, and the novel interac-tive behavior among the same types and various types of soliton excitations are revealed.There is a well-known fact that two mathematical con-stants of nature, the

π

- and

e

-numbers, play a great role

∗

E-mail: emad abdelsalam@yahoo.com

No. 6 Quasi-Periodic Structures Based on Symmetrical Lucas Function of (2+1)-Dimensional

· · ·

1005

in mathematics and physics. Their importance consistsin the fact that they “generate” the main classes of so-called “elementary functions”: sin, cosine (the

π

-number),exponential, logarithmic and hyperbolic functions (the

e

-number). It is impossible to imagine mathematics andphysics without these functions. For example, there is thewell-known greatest role of the classical hyperbolic func-tions in geometry and in cosmological researches. How-ever, there is the one more mathematical constant play-ing a great role in modeling of processes in living naturetermed the Golden Section, Golden Proportion, GoldenRatio, Golden Mean.

[32

−

36]

However, we should certifythat a role of this mathematical constant is sometimes un-deservedly humiliated in modern mathematics and math-ematical education. There is the well-known fact thatthe basic symbols of esoteric (pentagram, pentagonal star,platonic solids etc.) are connected to the Golden Sec-tion closely. Moreover, the “materialistic” science to-gether with its “materialistic” education had decided to“throw out” the Golden Section. However, in modern sci-ence, an attitude towards the Golden Section and con-nected to its Fibonacci and Lucas numbers is changingvery quickly. The outstanding discoveries of modern sci-ence based on the Golden Section have a revolutionaryimportance for development of modern science. Theseare enough convincing conﬁrmation of the fact that hu-man science approaches to uncovering one of the mostcomplicated scientiﬁc notions, namely, the notion of Har-mony, which is based on the Golden Section, Harmonywas opposed to Chaos and meant the organization of theuniverse. In Euclid’s the elements we ﬁnd a geometricproblem called “the problem of division of a line segmentin the extreme and middle ratio”. Often this problemis called the golden section problem.

[33

−

36]

Solution of thegolden section problem reduces to the following. algebraicequation

x

2

=

x

+ 1 this equation has two roots. We callthe positive root,

α

= (1 +

√

5)

/

2, the golden proportion,golden mean, or golden ratio. El Naschie’s works

[34

−

38]

de-velop the golden mean applications into modern physics.In the paper

[38]

devoted to the role of the Golden Meanin quantum physics El Naschie concludes the following:“In our opinion it is very worthwhile enterprise to followthe idea of Cantorian space-time with all its mathematicaland physical ramiﬁcations. The ﬁnal version may well be asynthesis between the results of quantum topology, quan-tum geometry and may be also Rossler’s endorphysics,which like Nottale’s latest work makes extensive use of the ideas of Nelson’s stochastic mechanism”. Thus, inthe Shechtman’s, Butusov’s, Mauldin and Williams’, El-Naschie’s, Vladimirov’s works, the Golden Section occu-pied a ﬁrm place in modern physics and it is impossible toimagine the future progress in physical researches withoutthe Golden Section.In our present paper, we review symmetrical Lucasfunctions

[39]

and we ﬁnd new solutions of the Riccati equa-tion by using these functions. Also, we devise an algorithmcalled Lucas–Riccatimethod to obtain new exact solutionsof NLPDEs. Along with the above line, i.e., in order to de-rive some new solutions with certain arbitrary functions,we assume that its solutions in the form,

u

(

x

) =

n

i

=0

a

i

(

x

)

F

i

(

x

)

,

(4)with

F

′

=

A

+

BF

2

,

(5)where

x

= (

x

0

=

t, x

1

, x

2

, x

3

,..., x

n

) and

A

,

B

are con-stants and the prime denotes diﬀerentiation with respectto

ξ

. To determine

u

explicitly, one may take the followingsteps: First, similar to the usual mapping approach, de-termine

n

by balancing the highest non-linear terms andthe highest-order partial terms in the given NLPDE. Sec-ond, substituting (4) and (5) into the given NLPDE andcollecting coeﬃcients of polynomials of

F

, then eliminat-ing each coeﬃcient to derive a set of partial diﬀerentialequations of

a

i

(

i

= 0

,

1

,

2

,..., n

) and

ξ

. Third, solv-ing the system of partial diﬀerential equations to obtain

a

i

and

ξ

. Substituting these results into (4), then a gen-eral formula of solutions of equation (1) can be obtained.Choose properly

A

and

B

in ODE (5) such that the cor-responding solution

F

(

ξ

) is one of the symmetrical Lucasfunction given bellow. Some deﬁnitions and properties of the symmetrical Lucas function are given in Appendix.

Case 1

If

A

= ln

α

and

B

=

−

ln

α

, then (5) possessessolutionstLs(

ξ

)

,

cotLs(

ξ

)

.

Case 2

If

A

= ln

α/

2 and

B

=

−

ln

α/

2, then (5) pos-sesses a solutiontLs(

ξ

)1

±

secLs(

ξ

)

.

Case 3

If

A

= ln

α

and

B

=

−

4ln

α

, then (5) possessesa solutiontLs(

ξ

)1

±

tLs

2

(

ξ

)

.

In the following section we apply the Lucas–Riccatimethod to obtain new localized excitations. Also, we payour attention to some novel Jacobian elliptic wave struc-ture with variable modulus and their interactions withdromions and peakons.

2 New Variable Separation Solutions of (2+1)-Dimensional Modiﬁed Dispersive Water-Wave System

We consider here the (2+1)-dimensional modiﬁed dis-persive water-wave (MDWW) system

u

yt

+

u

xxy

−

2

v

xx

−

(

u

2

)

xy

= 0

,v

t

−

v

xx

−

2(

vu

)

x

= 0

.

(6)

1006 Emad A-B. ABDEL-SALAM Vol. 52

The (2+1)-dimensional MDWW system was used tomodel nonlinear and dispersive long gravity waves travel-ing in two horizontal directions on shallow waters of uni-form depth, and can also be derived from the well-knownKadomtsev–Petviashvili (KP) equation using the symme-try constraint.

[15

−

16]

Abundant propagating localized ex-citations were derived by Tang

et al

.

[9]

with the help of Painlev´e–B¨acklund transformation and a multilinear vari-able separation approach. It is worth mentioning thatthis system has been widely applied in many branches of physics, such as plasma physics, ﬂuid dynamics, nonlinearoptics, etc. So, a good understanding of more solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional MDWW system (6) is very help-ful, especially for coastal and civil engineers in applyingthe nonlinear water model in harbor and coastal design.Meanwhile, ﬁnding more types of solutions to system (6)is of fundamental interest in ﬂuid dynamics.Now we apply the Lucas–Riccati method to Eqs. (6).First, let us make a transformation of the system (6):

v

=

u

y

. Substituting this transformation into system (6),yields

u

ty

−

u

xxy

−

(

u

2

)

xy

= 0

.

(7)Balancing the highest order derivative term with the non-linear term in Eq. (7), gives

n

= 1, we have the ans¨atz

u

(

x,y,t

) =

a

0

(

x,y,t

) +

a

1

(

x,y,t

)

F

(

ϕ

(

x,y,t

))

,

(8)where

a

0

(

x,y,t

)

≡

a

0

,

a

1

(

x,y,t

)

≡

a

1

, and

ϕ

(

x,y,t

)

≡

ϕ

are arbitrary functions of

x, y, t

to be determined. Sub-stituting (8) with (5) into (6), and equating each of thecoeﬃcients of

F

(

ϕ

) to zero, we obtain system of PDEs.Solving this system of PDEs, with the help of

Maple

, weobtain the following solution:

a

0

(

x,y,t

) =

−

ϕ

xx

(

x,y,t

)

−

ϕ

t

(

x,y,t

)2

ϕ

x

(

x,y,t

)

,

(9)

a

1

(

x,y,t

) =

−

Bϕ

x

(

x,y,t

)

,

(10)

ϕ

(

x,y,t

) =

f

(

x,t

) +

g

(

y

)

,

(11)where

f

(

x,t

)

≡

f

and

g

(

y

) =

g

are two arbitrary functionsof

x

,

t

, and

y

, respectively.Now based on the solutions of (5), one can obtain newtypes of localized excitations of the (2+1)-dimensionalMDWW system. We obtain the general formulae of thesolutions of the (2+1)-dimensional MDWW system

u

=

−

f

xx

−

f

t

2

f

x

−

Bf

x

F

(

f

+

g

)

,

(12)

v

=

−

ABf

x

g

y

−

B

2

f

x

g

y

F

2

(

f

+

g

)

.

(13)By selecting the special values of the

A

,

B

and the cor-responding function

F

we have the following solutions of (2+1)-dimensional MDWW system:

u

1

=

−

f

xx

−

f

t

2

f

x

+

f

x

tLs(

f

+

g

) ln

α,

(14)

v

1

=

f

x

g

y

ln

α

2

−

f

x

g

y

tLs

2

(

f

+

g

)ln

α

2

,

(15)

u

2

=

−

f

xx

−

f

t

2

f

x

+

f

x

cotLs(

f

+

g

)ln

α,

(16)

v

2

=

f

x

g

y

ln

α

2

−

f

x

g

y

cotLs

2

(

f

+

g

) ln

α

2

,

(17)

u

3

=

−

f

xx

−

f

t

2

f

x

+

f

x

tLs(

f

+

g

)ln

α

2[1

±

secLs(

f

+

g

)]

,

(18)

v

3

=

f

x

g

y

ln

α

2

4

−

f

x

g

y

ln

α

2

4

tLs(

f

+

g

)1

±

secLs(

f

+

g

)

2

,

(19)

u

4

=

−

f

xx

−

f

t

2

f

x

+4

f

x

tLs(

f

+

g

) ln

α

1 + tLs

2

(

f

+

g

)

,

(20)

v

4

= 4

f

x

g

y

ln

α

2

−

16

f

x

g

y

ln

α

2

tLs(

f

+

g

)1 + tLs

2

(

f

+

g

)

2

,

(21)where

f

(

x,t

) and

g

(

y

) are two arbitrary variable separa-tion functions. Especially, for the potential

U

=

u

1

y

hasthe following form

U

= 4

f

x

g

y

secLs

2

(

f

+

g

) ln

α

2

.

(22)

3 Periodic and Quasi-Periodic and Waves of (2+1)-Dimensional MDWW System

All rich localized coherent structures, such as non-propagating solitons, dromions, peakons, compactons,foldons, instantons, ghostons, ring solitons, and the in-teractions between these solitons,

[9

−

14

,

17

−

31

,

39]

can bederived by the quantity

U

expressed by (22). It isknown that for the (2+1)-dimensional integrable mod-els, there are many more abundant localized structuresthan in (1+1)-dimensional case because some types of arbitrary functions can be included in the explicit solu-tion expression.

[9]

Moreover, the periodic waves also havebeen studied by some authors. However, the quasi- andnon-periodic wave solutions of the integrable systems havebeen given limited attention with a fewer publications inthe literature. In the present paper, we pay our attentionto some periodic, quasi-periodic, and non-periodic waveevolutional behaviors for the ﬁeld

U

in (2+1) dimensions.

3.1

Doubly Periodic and Line Periodic Solitary Waves

It is known that for the nonlinear system, the peri-odic (and doubly periodic) wave solutions can usually beexpressed by means of the Jacobi elliptic functions withconstant modulus. If we take

f

= cn(

k

1

x

+

ω

1

t

+

x

01

;

m

1

)

,g

= cn(

K

1

y

+

y

01

;

n

1

)

,

(23)of (22) leads to a periodic solution for the potential

U

. In(23), cn(

k

1

x

+

ω

1

t

+

x

01

;

m

1

), cn(

K

1

y

+

y

01

;

n

1

) are the Ja-cobian elliptic cn functions with the modulus

m

1

,

n

1

, and

x

01

,

y

01

,

k

1

,

K

1

are arbitrary constants. Figure 1 showsthe detailed structures of (22) with (23) and

k

1

=

ω

1

=

K

1

= 1

, x

01

=

y

01

= 12

,

(24)