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Amicus Brief

Amicus Brief

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Published by Mike Schrimpf

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Published by: Mike Schrimpf on Feb 13, 2012
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07/05/2013

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No. 11-398In theSupreme Court of the United StatesD
EPARTMENT OF
H
EALTH AND
H
UMAN
S
ERVICES
,
 ET AL
.,
 
P
ETITIONERS
,v.S
TATE OF
F
LORIDA 
,
ET AL
., _______________________ On Writ of CertiorariTo The United States Court of AppealsFor the Eleventh Circuit __________________________ BRIEF AMICUS CURIAE OF THE COMMONEALTH OF VIRGINIA EX REL. ATTORNEY GENERAL KENNETH T.CUCCINELLI, II, IN SUPPORT OF APPELLEES ON THE ISSUEOF THE UNCONSTITUTIONALITY OF THE MANDATE ANDPENALTY IN WHICH VIRGINIA GOVERNOR ROBERT F.MCDONNELL AND THE REPUBLICAN GOVERNORS PUBLICPOLICY COMMITTEE JOIN
ENNETH
T.
 
C
UCCINELLI
,
 
II Attorney General of VirginiaE.
 
D
UNCAN
G
ETCHELL
,
 
J
R
.Solicitor General of Virginiadgetchell@oag.state.va.us
Counsel of Record
February 13, 2012C
HARLES
E.
 
J
 AMES
,
 
J
R
.Chief Deputy Attorney GeneralW
ESLEY 
G.
 
R
USSELL
,
 
J
R
.Deputy Attorney Generalwrussell@oag.state.va.usOffice of the Attorney General900 East Main StreetRichmond, Virginia 23219Telephone: (804) 786-7240Facsimile: (804) 371-0200
Counsel for theCommonwealth of Virginia
 
 
i
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES .......................................................................................................... ii
 
INTEREST OF THE AMICI AND BASIS OF AUTHORITY TO FILE ...................................... 1
 
SUMMARY OF ARGUMENT ...................................................................................................... 3
 
ARGUMENT .................................................................................................................................. 4
 
I.
 
THE
 
PRESUMPTION
 
OF
 
CONSTITUTIONALITY 
 
 ATTACHING
 
TO
 
PPACA 
 
IS
 
WEAK 
 
OWING
 
TO
 
THE
 
PARLIAMENTARY 
 
PROCESS
 
EMPLOYED
 
IN
 
ITS
 
ENACTMENT ................................................................................................... 4
 
II.
 
THE
 
FACT
 
THAT
 
CONGRESS
 
HERETOFORE
 
HAS
 
NEVER
 
CLAIMED
 
THE
 
POWER
 
TO
 
REQUIRE
 
 A 
 
CITIZEN
 
TO
 
PURCHASE
 
 A 
 
GOOD
 
OR
 
SERVICE
 
FROM
 
 ANOTHER
 
CITIZEN
 
TENDS
 
TO
 
NEGATE
 
THE
 
EXISTENCE
 
OF
 
THAT
 
POWER. ............................................................................................................ 9
 
III.
 
THE
 
MANDATE
 
 AND
 
PENALTY 
 
 ARE
 
CONTRARY 
 
TO
 
THE
 
TEXT
 
OF
 
THE
 
COMMERCE
 
CLAUSE
 
 AND
 
FOUNDATIONAL
 
UNDERSTANDINGS. ..................................................... 10
 
 A.
 
The Mandate and Penalty are Not Supported by theText of the Commerce Clause. ............................................................... 10
 
B.
 
The Historical Context in which the CommerceClause was Drafted Makes it Highly Unlikely that itIncluded a Power to Command a Citizen to PurchaseGoods or Services From Another Citizen. ............................................. 13
 
C.
 
There is No Tradition of Using the Commerce Clauseto Require a Citizen to Purchase Goods or Servicesfrom Another Citizen. ............................................................................. 16
 
D.
 
The Mandate and Penalty are Outside the ExistingOuter Limits of the Commerce Clause and Associated Necessary and Proper Clause asMeasured by Supreme Court Precedent................................................ 18
 
CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................. 26
 
 
ii
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES
Page
Cases
 
 Alden v. Maine, 527 U.S. 706 (1999) ........................................................................... 24Calder v. Bull, 3 U.S. (Dallas) 386 (1798) ..................................................................... 4Gibbons v. Ogden, 22 U.S. (9 Wheat.) 1 (1824) .................................. 12, 16, 17, 19, 20Gonzales v. Oregon, 546 U.S. 243 (2006) .................................................................... 22Gonzales v. Raich, 545 U.S. 1 (2005) ............................................ 12, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23Hylton v. United States, 3 U.S. (Dallas) 171 (1796)..................................................... 4Katzenbach v. McClung, 379 U.S. 294 (1964) ............................................................ 22Kinsella v. Singleton, 361 U.S. 234 (1960) ................................................................. 22Lochner v. New York, 198 U.S. 45 (1905) ................................................................... 18Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. (1 Cranch) 137 (1803) ...................................................... 4R.R. Ret. Bd. v. Alton R.R. Co., 295 U.S. 330 (1935) .................................................. 18United States v. Comstock, 130 S. Ct. 1949 (2010) .............................................. 23, 24United States v. Wrightwood Dairy Co., 315 U.S. 110 (1942) ................................... 22Ware v. Hylton, 3 U.S. (Dallas) 199 (1796) ................................................................... 4Wickard v. Filburn, 317 U.S. 111 (1942) ................................ 12, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21
Statutes
 
Kansas Nebraska Act of 1854, 10 Stat. 277 ................................................................. 5Patient Protection and Affordance Care Act, Pub. L. No. 111-148, 124 Stat. 119(2010) (PPACA) ................................................................................................ 1, 6, 10PPACA § 1501 .............................................................................................................. 10
Other Authorities
 

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