TechTrends • March/April 2012
Volume 56, Number 2
According to Chang, Morreale, and Medi-cherla (2010), several researchers have sug-gested that learners can strengthen theirmotivation or learning and enhance their edu-cational realism-based practices with virtual andaugmented reality. In spite o a great amounto research during the last two decades, adopt-ing AR in education and training is still quitechallenging because o issues with its integra-tion with traditional learning methods, costsor the development and maintenance o the ARsystem, and general resistance to new technolo-gies. Now that AR, however, has the promise toattract and inspire learners with exploring andcontrolling materials rom a number o dier-ent perspectives that have not previously beentaken into consideration, AR in education andtraining is believed to have a more streamlinedapproach with wider user adoption than everbeore due to the improvement in computer andinormation technology. Kerawalla, et al. (2006)stated that even though many AR applicationshave been developed or educational and train-ing purposes since the advent o AR in the late1960s, its potential and pragmatic employmenthas just begun to be explored and utilized. Heemphasized that AR has the potential to havelearners more engaged and motivated in discov-ering resources and applying them to the realworld rom a variety o diverse perspectives thathave never been implemented beore.
How AR Works in Educationand Training
Johnson, et al. (2010) stated, “AR has strongpotential to provide both powerul contextual,on-site learning experiences and serendipitousexploration and discovery o the connected na-ture o inormation in the real world.” (p. 21).AR has been experimentally applied to bothschool and business environments, althoughnot as much as classic methods o education andtraining during the last two decades. In additionto that, now that the technologies that make ARpossible are much more powerul than ever be-ore and compact enough to deliver AR experi-ences to not only corporate settings but also aca-demic venues through personal computers andmobile devices, several educational approacheswith AR technology are more easible. Also,wireless mobile devices, such as smart phones,tablet PCs, and other electronic innovations, areincreasingly ushering AR into the mobile spacewhere applications oer a great deal o promise,especially in education and training.
AR in School
Proessionals and researchers have strivento apply AR to classroom-based learning withinsubjects like chemistry, mathematics, biology,physics, astronomy, and other K-12 educationor higher, and to adopt it into augmented booksand student guides. However, Shelton (2002) es-timated that AR has not been much adopted intoacademic settings due to little nancial supportrom the government and lack o the awarenesso needs or AR in academic settings.
AR in Business
In corporate venues, AR is a collaborative,skill-learning, explainable, and guidable tool orworkers, managers, and customers. Also busi-nesses have a better environment than thoseo educational settings regarding the ability tomaintain the costs and support o AR applica-tions. Many corporations are interested in em-ploying AR or the design and the recognition o their products’ physical parts. According to theevaluation o Shelton (2002), or example, enter-prises not only may imagine designing a car inthree dimensions in which they can make imme-diate changes when needed but also can create virtual comments that explain to the technicianswhat needs to be xed.
The Current Position of AR inEducation and Training
During the last ew decades, many proes-sionals and researchers have been develop-ing pragmatic theories and applications or theadoption o AR into both academic and corpo-rate settings. By virtue o those studies, someinnovations o AR have been developed and arebeing used to enhance the education and train-ing eciency o students and employees. In ad-dition to that, there are a great number o studiesgoing on to improve the compatibility and appli-cability o AR into real lie. However, accordingto Shelton & Hedley (2004), many questions stilllinger about its use in education and training, in-cluding issues o cost eectiveness, o eciency between AR instructional systems and conven-tional methods, and the like.
AR in K-12 Settings
Freitas & Campos (2008) developed SMAR(System o augmented reality or teaching) thatis an educational system using AR technology.Tis system uses AR or teaching 2nd grade-lev-el concepts, such as the means o transportationand types o animals. Tis system superimposesthree dimensional models and prototypes, such