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Augmented Reality in Education and Training by Kangdon Lee

Augmented Reality in Education and Training by Kangdon Lee

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Published by Kangdon Lee
Augmented reality in education and training by kangdon lee
(ar,augmented,augmented reality,education,mobile,reality,technology,training)
Recommended Citation
Lee, K. (2012). Augmented reality in education and training. TechTrends, 56(2):13-21.
Augmented reality in education and training by kangdon lee
(ar,augmented,augmented reality,education,mobile,reality,technology,training)
Recommended Citation
Lee, K. (2012). Augmented reality in education and training. TechTrends, 56(2):13-21.

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Published by: Kangdon Lee on Feb 13, 2012
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Volume 56, Number 2
TechTrends • March/April 2012
Tere are many dierent ways or people tobe educated and trained with regard to specicinormation and skills they need. Tese methodsinclude classroom lectures with textbooks, com-puters, handheld devices, and other electronicappliances. Te choice o learning innovation isdependent on an individual’s access to varioustechnologies and the inrastructure environmento a person’s surrounding. In a rapidly changingsociety where there is a great deal o available in-ormation and knowledge, adopting and apply-ing inormation at the right time and right placeis needed to main eciency in both school andbusiness settings. Augmented Reality (AR) isone technology that dramatically shis the loca-tion and timing o education and training. Tisliterature review research describes AugmentedReality (AR), how it applies to education andtraining, and the potential impact on the utureo education.
: Augment Reality, Virtual Reality,raining, Educational echnology ugmented Reality (AR) is a technology that allows computer-generated virtualimagery inormation to be overlaid onto alive direct or indirect real-world environment inreal time (Azuma, 1997; Zhou, Duh, & Billing-hurst, 2008). AR is dierent rom Virtual Reality (VR) in that in VR people are expected to experi-ence a computer-generated virtual environment.In AR, the environment is real, but extendedwith inormation and imagery rom the system.In other words, AR bridges the gap between thereal and the virtual in a seamless way (Chang,Morreale, & Medicherla, 2010).According to Johnson, Levine, Smith, &Stone (2010), the history o AR goes back to the1960s and the rst system was used or both ARand VR. It used an optical see-through head-mounted display that was tracked by one o twodierent methods: a mechanical tracker and anultrasonic tracker. Due to the limited process-ing power o computers at that time, only very simple wirerame drawings could be displayedin real time (Sutherland, 1968). Since then,AR has been put to use by a number o ma- jor companies or visualization, training, andother purposes. Te term ‘Augmented Reality’is attributed to ormer Boeing researcher omCaudell, who is believed to have coined theterm in 1990.According to Johnson, et al. (2010), ARsystems can either be marker-based or mark-erless-based. Marker-based applications arecomprised o three basic components whichinclude a booklet or oering marker inorma-tion, a gripper or getting inormation romthe booklet and converting it to another typeo data, and a cube or augmenting inorma-tion into 3D-rendered inormation on a screen.On the other hand, markerless-based applica-tions need a tracking system that involves GPS(Global Positioning System), a compass, and animage recognition device instead o the three el-ements o maker-based systems. Markerless ap-plications have wider applicability because they unction anywhere without the need or speciallabeling or supplemental reerence points.
AAugmented Reality inEducation and Training
By Kangdon LeeUniversity o Northern Colorado
TechTrends • March/April 2012
Volume 56, Number 2
According to Chang, Morreale, and Medi-cherla (2010), several researchers have sug-gested that learners can strengthen theirmotivation or learning and enhance their edu-cational realism-based practices with virtual andaugmented reality. In spite o a great amounto research during the last two decades, adopt-ing AR in education and training is still quitechallenging because o issues with its integra-tion with traditional learning methods, costsor the development and maintenance o the ARsystem, and general resistance to new technolo-gies. Now that AR, however, has the promise toattract and inspire learners with exploring andcontrolling materials rom a number o dier-ent perspectives that have not previously beentaken into consideration, AR in education andtraining is believed to have a more streamlinedapproach with wider user adoption than everbeore due to the improvement in computer andinormation technology. Kerawalla, et al. (2006)stated that even though many AR applicationshave been developed or educational and train-ing purposes since the advent o AR in the late1960s, its potential and pragmatic employmenthas just begun to be explored and utilized. Heemphasized that AR has the potential to havelearners more engaged and motivated in discov-ering resources and applying them to the realworld rom a variety o diverse perspectives thathave never been implemented beore.
How AR Works in Educationand Training
Johnson, et al. (2010) stated, “AR has strongpotential to provide both powerul contextual,on-site learning experiences and serendipitousexploration and discovery o the connected na-ture o inormation in the real world.” (p. 21).AR has been experimentally applied to bothschool and business environments, althoughnot as much as classic methods o education andtraining during the last two decades. In additionto that, now that the technologies that make ARpossible are much more powerul than ever be-ore and compact enough to deliver AR experi-ences to not only corporate settings but also aca-demic venues through personal computers andmobile devices, several educational approacheswith AR technology are more easible. Also,wireless mobile devices, such as smart phones,tablet PCs, and other electronic innovations, areincreasingly ushering AR into the mobile spacewhere applications oer a great deal o promise,especially in education and training.
AR in School
Proessionals and researchers have strivento apply AR to classroom-based learning withinsubjects like chemistry, mathematics, biology,physics, astronomy, and other K-12 educationor higher, and to adopt it into augmented booksand student guides. However, Shelton (2002) es-timated that AR has not been much adopted intoacademic settings due to little nancial supportrom the government and lack o the awarenesso needs or AR in academic settings.
AR in Business
In corporate venues, AR is a collaborative,skill-learning, explainable, and guidable tool orworkers, managers, and customers. Also busi-nesses have a better environment than thoseo educational settings regarding the ability tomaintain the costs and support o AR applica-tions. Many corporations are interested in em-ploying AR or the design and the recognition o their products’ physical parts. According to theevaluation o Shelton (2002), or example, enter-prises not only may imagine designing a car inthree dimensions in which they can make imme-diate changes when needed but also can create virtual comments that explain to the technicianswhat needs to be xed.
The Current Position of AR inEducation and Training
During the last ew decades, many proes-sionals and researchers have been develop-ing pragmatic theories and applications or theadoption o AR into both academic and corpo-rate settings. By virtue o those studies, someinnovations o AR have been developed and arebeing used to enhance the education and train-ing eciency o students and employees. In ad-dition to that, there are a great number o studiesgoing on to improve the compatibility and appli-cability o AR into real lie. However, accordingto Shelton & Hedley (2004), many questions stilllinger about its use in education and training, in-cluding issues o cost eectiveness, o eciency between AR instructional systems and conven-tional methods, and the like.
AR in K-12 Settings
Freitas & Campos (2008) developed SMAR(System o augmented reality or teaching) thatis an educational system using AR technology.Tis system uses AR or teaching 2nd grade-lev-el concepts, such as the means o transportationand types o animals. Tis system superimposesthree dimensional models and prototypes, such
Volume 56, Number 2
TechTrends • March/April 2012
as a car, truck, and airplane, on the real time vid-eo eed shown to the whole class. Because mostchildren spend a great deal o time playing digi-tal games, game-based learning is one way to en-gage children in learning. Several experiments by Freitas & Campos (2008) were perormed with54 students in three dierent schools in Portu-gal. Te results o a number o studies by Freitas& Campos (2008) indicated that SMAR helpsincrease motivation among students, and it hasa positive impact on the learning experienceso these students, especially among the less aca-demically successul students.
AR in Higher Education
AR is a very ecient technology or bothhigher education such as universities and col-leges. Students in both schools can improve theirknowledge and skills, especially on complextheories or mechanisms o systems or machin-ery. For example, Liarokapis, et al. (2004) dem-onstrated that AR can make complicated mecha-nisms and dicult theories in higher educationaccepted and understood by students with con-textually enriched interaction using AR technol-ogy. In the results o their research, Liarokapis,et al, (2004) showed an AR view o a student ex-amining an augmented 3D model o a camshaarrangement in conjunction with a set o real en-gine components.
Te Application o AR in Diferent SubjectsAugmented astronomy.
In an astronomy class, students learn about the relationship be-tween the earth and the sun. For the sake o students’ understanding, educators may employ AR technology with 3D rendered earth and sunshapes.Sheltons (2002) study described the ollowing:Te virtual sun and earth are manipu-lated on a small hand-held platorm thatchanges its orientation in coordinationwith the viewing perspective o the stu-dent. Te student controls the angle o  viewing in order to understand how un-seen elements work in conjunction withthose that were previously seen (p. 324).In another example or the employmento AR in astronomy, Johnson, et al. (2010) de-scribed Google’s SkyMap (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p6znyx0gjb4) as an applicationusing AR technology. SkyMap overlays inor-mation about the stars and the constellations asusers browse the sky with the see-through viewrom the camera on their smart phones (p. 23).
Augmented chemistry.
Augmented chem-istry is an interactive educational workbenchthat can show students how and what an atomor a molecule consists o via AR. Tree elements,a booklet, a gripper, and a cube, are required toimplement this task with both hands. Fjeld &Voegtli (2002) said that the booklet displayscomponents by a printed picture and a name.One hand browses the booklet with a gripperthat has a button used to connect an atom to themolecular model. According to Fjeld & Voegtli(2002), users rst bring the gripper around theelement in the booklet and get inormationabout the element by clicking the button o thegripper. Users then move the gripper next to acube, called a platorm, which holds a molecule.Subsequently, by rotating a cube operated by theother hand, users can determine where and howthe element connects to the molecule.
Figure 1.
 A view o a student interacting with real objects (oam corecard, table, wall) and articial objects (Sun, Earth, annota-tions) through the augmented reality interace. Tis view isas would be seen i wearing an HMD (Shelton, 2002). Imageby courtesy o Brett E. Shelton.Figure 2.
a) Booklet ofering one element per page – here Na – sodium. Each element is rep-resented by a pattern. b) Gripper with a button (red) and a pattern. c) Cube withone distinct pattern or each surace (Fjeld & Voegtle, 2002). Image by courtesy o  Morten Fjeld a Benedikt M. Voegtli.

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