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Responses to Ionic Environments (Part Two)

Responses to Ionic Environments (Part Two)

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Published by: Savannah Simone Petrachenko on Feb 14, 2012
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09/28/2013

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Responses to Ionic Environments (Part Two)
Sample Exam Questions
Freeze avoidance is a strategy used by ectotherms in freezing environments.This involves:a.
 
The generation of proteins that promote ice-crystal in cells.
b.
 
The generation of proteins that enables the supercooling of tissue fluids.
c.
 
Changes in metabolism leading to the reduced osmolarity of extracellular fluids.d.
 
The increased generation of metabolic heat.Following consumption of a highly salty meal, which of the following wouldbe a likely consequence in a human?a.
 
Increased glomerular filtrationb.
 
Increased secretion of aldosteronec.
 
Decreased secretion of aldosteroned.
 
Formation of a hypo-osmotic urine
R
eadings
y
 
Pages 774-778
y
 
Pages 848-850
y
 
Chapter 51
I
onic and Osmotic Balance
Mammals
y
 
Preventing dehydration
y
 
Regulating kidney function
y
 
Extreme regulation in the kangaroo rat
y
 
H
umans are regulators
o
 
W
ater loss happens when water is evaporated via the lungs,mouth, and nose, sweating excretion via the urine and feces
 
o
 
S
olution to water loss
 
K
idneys do a lot of waste reabsorption
 
O
ur lungs are internalized to prevent water loss andutilize a countercurrent mechanism to retain respiratorywater vapour.
P
lants
y
 
X
erophytes
o
 
Plants that have adapted to cope with dry desert conditionsare called xerophytes. Many do not have leaves, which wouldlose water through evaporation in the heat. Instead they mayhave defensive spines.
S
ome xerophytes have shallow rootsthat absorb water quickly after rain.
O
thers have very longtaproots that extract water from deep in the ground.
y
 
H
alophytes
o
 
Plants that have adapted to live in salty environments arecalled halophytes.
S
alt draws water out of the roots of mostplants, slowly drying them out.
S
ome halophytes have waysto get rid of excess salt.
O
thers need a salty environment inorder to survive.
H
alophytes are able to grow in salt marshes,shallow coastal waters, dry salt pans, and on sand dunes.
T
errestrial Vertebrates
P
roblem
y
 
Made of water
C
onsequence
y
 
L
oss of water to air by«
o
 
Evaporation via the lungs, mouth, and nose
o
 
S
weating
o
 
Excretion via the urine and feces
Solution
y
 
Modify kidney to reabsorb water ± only mammals and birds produceurine more concentrated than the blood
 
y
 
Internalize lungs to prevent water loss. Utilize a counter-currentmechanism to retain respiratory water vapour
H
uman Osmoregulation
P
roblem
y
 
H
ow do you maintain constant osmolarity of the blood despite widevariations in«
o
 
W
ater intake
o
 
S
alt intake
C
onsequence
y
 
Dehydration or excessive water retention
Solution
y
 
Modify volume and concentration of ions in the urine

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