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Idea, Essence, Existence and Archetype
-- Kent D. Palmer
Nietzsche and Jung, Hillman andGiegerich, Jesus andMuhammad
 Kent D. Palmer, Ph.D.
P.O. Box 1632Orange CA 92856 USA714-633-9508palmer@exo.com
Copyright 2001 K.D. Palmer.All Rights Reserved. Not for distribution.Version 0.30; 02/09/18; ia00v03.doc
Archetype, Essence, Idea, Existence
In this paper we will explore the relationbetween Archetypes, Essences and Ideasbased on the work of Nietzsche andJung, and various phenomenologists
aswell as the concepts developed in thefirst two essays in this series
Such as Husserl, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty
Primal Ontology and Archaic Existentiality,Nietzsche's Madness, seehttp://dialog.net:85/kent_palmer.html
Metaphysics of Idea and Archetype
Most philosophers who deal withpsychology limit themselves to a reviewof the work of Freud. Here we will look at Nietzsche's psychology and his relationto the psychoanalysis of Jung. Jung splitfrom Freud and established his ownapproach to psychoanalysis but much of the impetus for that comes from hisinterpretation of Nietzsche. Nietzsche'spsychology is far more sophisticated thanthat of Freud which is basicallymechanistic and also is conceptuallyincoherent in many respects. Nietzsche'sphilosophy culminates in the concepts of the will-to-power and eternal return.Jung's psychoanalysis inherits much of itssophistication from Nietzsche andexpands out to other influences includingmythology, ritual, religion of many othercultures, or archaic practices in Westernculture such as Alchemy. Culturalpractices from across the world wereinterpreted as signs of the operation of archetypes. A fundamental move forJung was from ideas and essences thatphilosophy normally discusses to dealingwith archetypes. Archetypes are the dualof ideas. Where Ideas posit unities of presences, or some other aspect of Being. Archetypes posit totalities of absences, or some other aspect of Being.One of the major thrusts of this paperwill be to look at this duality that iscaptured in the move from Plato'soriginal definition of ideas as the unity of presences, to Nietzsche's revolutionagainst Plato that posited reality overtruth as the fundamental criteria formetaphysics. Nietzsche also emphasizesthe preeminence of Art which Platodenigrates as a degenerate form of presencing. Finally Jung inverts thisconcept of the idea completely and
Idea, Essence, Existence and Archetype
-- Kent D. Palmer
produces the concept of the archetype asthe opposite of the idea that appears inconsciousness, giving rise to thearchetype that organizes the unconsciousinstead. This whole question of therelation between archetypes and ideas isfundamental to our understanding of theWestern worldview and our place withinthat worldview. Most philosophicalscholarship on psychology has in a sensebeen led astray by not recognizing theinherent connection between Jung'sphilosophically sophisticated psychologyand Nietzsche's psychologicallysophisticated philosophy. Jung'sphilosophical sophistication has not beengiven due recognition and Neitzsche'spsychology has been mostly ignored. Sohere we will attempt to push theenvelope of our understanding of therelation between ideas and archetypes bytalking about Jung's analysis of Zarathustra in which he confronts thecase of Nietzsche from a psychologicalpoint of view and by talking about theelements of Nietzsche's philosophy whichcan be seen as the precursors to Jung'senterprise. It was Jung's appreciation of Nietzsche that was among the things thatdrew him away from following Freudslavishly. Freud wanted to found ascience and for everyone to follow hisway of looking at the mind and itsunconscious shadow. Jung attempted tore-found that science on morephilosophically sophisticated grounds andalso to go beyond what mere science canapproach to deal with some of the morefundamental questions regarding thenature of the human soul. Jung waswilling to appeal to many strange culturalforms such as Alchemy to approach thesoul in ways beyond what westernscience could manage on its own. Allthis, the works of Nietzsche and Jung,provides us with a rich primordial soupout of which we might draw manyinteresting concepts, if we attempt tostruggle anew with the same sorts of issues that both Jung and Nietzscheattempted to deal with, especially if weput that into the context of post-moderncontinental philosophy, and especiallyphenomenology.
Our starting point is with something thatbecame clear in the essay on
 Nietzsche's Madness
. This based on Heidegger'sexplanation of Nietzsche's relation toPlato. In that explanation the concept of the Idea in Plato is laid out. The idea isseen as a unity of presences. But thisunity of presences has a particularstructure that we have attributed to whatare called the exotics and related touniversal algebra. The idea has variousstates. One state is the image in poetryassociated with logos. Another state isthe made artifact created by thecraftsman associated with physus.Another state is the natural thingproduced in creation without humanintervention associated with the physus.And finally there is the state associatedwith the pure idea which is sometimescalled the
original form
that is beyondmanifestation. The pure idea nevermanifests in-itself. However, the idea asthe origin of many natural objectsthrough the unfolding of the physus.When the results of that physus ismanipulated by craftsmen certain thingsthat never existed before in nature areproduced by human workmanship. Poetsand other artists make images of theseartifacts in various media, one of which islanguage.When we make a phenomenologicalanalysis we find that there is a morecomplex set of ideas than this at play,
Idea, Essence, Existence and Archetype
-- Kent D. Palmer
beneath the surface of our familiar use of ideas in our life. Husserl distinguishesnoema and noesis as the combinations of the intentional morphe (form) and thehyle (content) of intentional forms.Husserl goes on to distinguish thenoematic nucleus of the object that isseen from a roving viewpoint or multipleviewpoints. The noematic nucleus is theexternal coherence of the object. On theother hand the internal coherence of theobject is called the essence. It is theconstraint on the attributes of the objectthat gives it internal coherence underdeformations of various kinds. Husserlpresents a method of altering objects todiscover the limits of their essences inimagination. He says that we immediatelyintuit essences of things and that it isthrough this ability that our fundamentalrelation to the world is established.Essences are completely different fromabstract glosses called ideas. Ideas areprojections on the thing while essencesare the inherent nature of the thingsthemselves as we perceive them in ourworld. There has always been thisfundamental confusion that see essencesas "simple ideas" which Husserlattempted to rectify. Ideas are projectedabstract glosses beyond the external andinternal coherence of the things. Platoalso confused essences and ideas which isa fundamental problem with hisphilosophy of presence. When wedisentangle these two concepts then werealize that the sources of things must besomething different from ideas. Thesources of things must be theirarchetypes for which the variousrepresentations of things are the ectype.Archetypes are beyond the thing in adifferent direction than the ideas. Ideashover over the things as projectedabstract glosses. Archetypes areimmanent within the things and give riseto their essential nature beyond theirrepresentations. Archetypes are alsodifferent in as much as they representtotalities and not unities. So where anidea unifies the presences of a thing thearchetype totalizes its absences. Thebrilliance of Jung following the insightsof Nietzsche is that there is a level of archetype beyond the representations of things that appear which is the obverse of the idea. It is not a projection but a
from which the essence unfoldsstep by step to eventually give rise to thenoematic nucleus which can be projectedon by ideas.
Idea = unity of presencesNoematic Nucleus = totality of presencesEssence = unity of absences = constraintsArchetype = totality of absences = sources
 If we premutate the concepts of unity andtotality with the aspects of presence andabsence we find that we can generate thespectrum of states between the idea and thearchetype. The noematic nucleus is thetotality of presences from a movingviewpoint or a multiplicity of viewpoints.Essences on the other hand are constraintsand thus they are a totality of absences. Wedo not see the constraints except by what theattributes can and cannot do in relation toeach other within the objects permutationalspace. Archetype totalizes the absences whilethe idea unifies the presences. The reason wedo not see archetypes, i.e. the real sources of things in Plato behind the ideas is that itdefines the entire permutational space of theessence, i.e. the totality of meta-constraintthat give rise to all the objects of that kind.Another way of looking at this is to think of the Idea as being composed of four schemas.

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