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Peter Petersen and William Wylie- On the Classification of Gradient Ricci Solitons

Peter Petersen and William Wylie- On the Classification of Gradient Ricci Solitons

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ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF GRADIENT RICCI SOLITONS
PETER PETERSEN AND WILLIAM WYLIE
Abstract.
We show that the only shrinking gradient solitons with vanish-ing Weyl tensor are quotients of the standard ones
n
;
n
1
R
;
and
R
n
.This gives a new proof of the Hamilton-Ivey-Perel’man classi…cation of 3-dimensional shrinking gradient solitons. We also show that gradient solitonswith constant scalar curvature and suitably decaying Weyl tensor when non-compact are quotients of 
H
n
;
H
n
1
R
;
R
n
;
n
1
R
;
or
n
:
1.
Introduction
A Ricci soliton is a Riemannian metric together with a vector …eld
(
M;g;X 
)
that satis…es
Ric +12
L
X
g
=
g:
It is called shrinking when
>
0
;
steady when
= 0
, and expanding when
<
0
.In case
=
r
the equation can also be written as
Ric + Hess
=
g
and the metric is called a gradient Ricci soliton.In dimension
2
Hamilton proved that the shrinking gradient Ricci solitons withbounded curvature are
2
;
R
2
;
and
R
2
with constant curvature [16]. Ivey provedthe …rst classi…cation result in dimension
3
showing that compact shrinking gradi-ent solitons have constant positive curvature [18]. In the noncompact case Perelmanhas shown that the
3
-dimensional shrinking gradient Ricci solitons with boundednonnegative sectional curvature are
3
,
2
R
and
R
3
or quotients thereof [28].(In Perelman’s paper he also includes the assumption that the manifold is
-noncollapsed but this assumption is not necessary to the argument, see for example,[11].) The Hamilton-Ivey estimate shows that all
3
-dimensional shrinking Ricci soli-tons with bounded curvature have non-negative sectional curvature ([11], Theorem6.44) So the work of Perelman, Hamilton, and Ivey together give the followingclassi…cation in dimension 3.
1
Theorem 1.1.
The only three dimensional shrinking gradient Ricci solitons with bounded curvature are the …nite quotients of 
R
3
,
2
R
, and 
3
.
Recently Ni and Wallach [26] have given an alternative approach to provingthe classi…cation of 
3
-dimensional shrinkers which extends to higher dimensionalmanifolds with zero Weyl tensor. (Every
3
-manifold has zero Weyl tensor.) Theirargument also requires non-negative Ricci curvature. Also see Naber’s paper [24] fora di¤erent argument in the 3-dimensional case. By using a di¤erent set of formulaswe remove the non-negative curvature assumption.
1991
Mathematics Subject Classi…cation.
53C25.
1
We thank Ben Chow for pointing this out to us.
1
 
2 PETER PETERSEN AND WILLIAM WYLIE
Theorem 1.2.
Let 
(
n
;g;f 
)
be a complete shrinking gradient Ricci soliton of dimension 
n
3
such that 
j
Ric
j
2
e
d
vol
g
<
1
and 
= 0
then 
is a …nite quotient of 
R
n
,
n
1
R
, or 
n
.
Recall that a result of Morgan [23] implies
e
d
vol
g
is a …nite measure so as acorollary we obtain a new direct proof of Theorem 1.1 that does not require theHamilton-Ivey estimate. When
is compact Theorem 1.2 was established usingsimilar techniques by Eminenti, LaNave, and Mantegazza in [12].We note that a shrinking soliton has …nite fundamental group [32] and that Naberhas shown that it can be made into a gradient soliton by adding an appropriateKilling …eld to
[24]. In the compact case this was proven by Perelman [27].If we relax the Weyl curvature condition and instead assume that the scalarcurvature is constant we also get a nice general classi…cation.
Theorem 1.3.
Let 
(
n
;g;f 
)
be a complete gradient Ricci soliton with 
n
3
,constant scalar curvature, and 
(
r
f;
;
;
r
) =
o
jr
j
2
;
then 
is a ‡at bundle of rank 
0
;
1
;
or 
n
over an Einstein manifold.
Note that the Weyl curvature condition is vacuous when
n
= 3
or
is compact.Moreover, when
is compact or the soliton is steady it is already known that ithas to be rigid when the scalar curvature is constant [29]. It is also worth pointingout that the theorem is in a sense optimal. Namely, rigid solitons with zero, oneor
n
-dimensional Euclidean factors have
(
r
f;
;
;
r
) = 0
:
When
n
= 3
thetheorem yields the following new result.
Corollary 1.
The only 3-dimensional expanding gradient Ricci solitons with con-stant scalar curvature are quotients of 
R
3
;
H
2
R
, and 
H
3
.
There are now many examples of non-trivial gradient solitons, but we do notknow of any with constant scalar curvature. Moreover, we have shown that anygradient soliton which is homogeneous or has constant scalar curvature and is ra-dially ‡at (i.e.
sec(
r
f;
) = 0
) is a product of Einstein and Euclidean manifolds[30, 29]. There are a number non-trivial homogeneous expanding Ricci solitons,even in dimension 3 (see [1, 19, 21]). Unlike the shrinking case, these metrics donot support a
gradient 
soliton structure.Our results follow from considering elliptic equations for various curvature quan-tities on solitons. While there are well-known Ricci ‡ow versions of a number of these formulas, the elliptic proofs are surprisingly straight-forward and give someinteresting extra rigidity. For example, by considering the equation for the curva-ture operator we show that if the
second 
eigenvalue of the curvature operator of a shrinking gradient Ricci soliton is nonnegative then the metric has nonnegativecurvature operator. This then extends a number of rigidity theorems for nonnega-tive(or 2-nonnegative) curvature operator (see [4, 5, 24, 30]).The paper is organized as follows. We start by deriving the formulas for
-Laplacians of various functions and tensors related to curvature. Next we giveour constant scalar curvature characterization. The proof of this result is almostentirely algebraic. By contrast the proof of the theorems for shrinking solitons reliesfar more heavily on analytic techniques. In the appendix we review the proof of theclassi…cation of 2-dimensional solitons giving a proof that follows from an Obatatype characterization of warped product manifolds found in [7] that does not seemto appear elsewhere in the literature.
 
GRADIENT RICCI SOLITONS 3
2.
The
-Laplacian of Curvature
In this section we are interested in deriving elliptic equations for the curvatureof a gradient Ricci soliton. Let
be a tensor bundle on a gradient Ricci soliton,
r
be the Riemannian connection on
, and
a self-adjoint operator on
. The
-Laplacian and
-Laplacian of 
is the operator
(
X
) = (
)
(
r
X
)(
) = (
)
(
r
r
)
Where
is the connection Laplacian induced by
r
. We are interested in the caseswhere
=
^
2
and
is the curvature operator
R
and where
=
T
and
isthe
(1
;
1)
Ricci tensor.The formulas in these cases are the following.
Lemma 2.1.
For a gradient Ricci soliton 
R
= 2
R
2
R
2
+
R
#
Ric = 2
Ric
2
n
X
i
=1
R
(
;
i
)(Ric(
i
))
scal = 2
scal
2
j
Ric
j
2
Remark 
2.2
.
A mild warning is in order for the …rst equation. We de…ne the inducedmetric on
^
2
so that if 
f
i
g
is an orthonormal basis of 
 p
then
f
i
^
j
g
i<j
is an orthonormal basis of 
^
2
 p
. This convention agrees with [4] but di¤ers from[10, 14, 15].
Remark 
2.3
.
The last equation is well known, see [29] for a proof. A similar equa-tion for the Ricci tensor appears in [12]. Some other interesting formulas for thecurvature operator of gradient solitons appear in [5].
Remark 
2.4
.
Since Ricci solitons are special solutions to the Ricci ‡ow the aboveequations can be derived from the parabolic formulas derived by Hamilton [14] forthe Ricci ‡ow
@t
R
=
R
+ 2
R
2
+
R
#
@t
Ric =
L
Ric
@t
scal = scal + 2
j
Ric
j
2
:
However, we will simply perform the elliptic calculation which is more straightforward (for example no “Uhlenbeck trick" is necessary). We also expect similarcalculations will give formulas for elliptic equations which do not come directly froma Ricci ‡ow.
R
#
is the Lie-Algebra square of 
R
introduced by Hamilton in [15]. Recall thatif we change
R
#
into a (0,4)-tensor its formula is
g
R
#
(
^
)
;
^
=
R
#
(
X;Y;Z;W 
)=
B
(
X;W;Y;Z 
)
B
(
X;Z;Y;W 
)
;

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