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Z. F. Xu et al- Spontaneously axisymmetry breaking phase in a binary mixture of spinor Bose-Einstein condensates

Z. F. Xu et al- Spontaneously axisymmetry breaking phase in a binary mixture of spinor Bose-Einstein condensates

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Spontaneously axisymmetry breaking phasein a binary mixture of spinor Bose-Einstein condensates
Z. F. Xu,
1
J. W. Mei,
2
R. L¨u,
1
and L. You
1
1
Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, People’s Republic of China 
Institute for Advanced Study, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, People’s Republic of China 
(Dated: November 3, 2010)We study the ground state phases for a mixture of two atomic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates(BECs) in the presence of a weak magnetic (B-) field. The ground state is found to contain abroken-axisymmetry (BA) phase due to competitions among intra- and inter-species spin exchangeinteractions and the linear Zeeman shifts. This is in contrast to the case of a single species spin-1 condensate, where the axisymmetry breaking results from competitions among the linear andquadratic Zeeman shifts and the intra-species ferromagnetic interaction. All other remaining groundstate phases for the mixture are found to preserve axisymmetry. We further elaborate on the groundstate phase diagram and calculate their Bogoliubov excitation spectra. For the BA phase, there existthree Goldstone modes attempting to restore the broken U(1) and SO(2) symmetries.
PACS numbers: 03.75.Mn, 03.75.Kk, 67.60.Bc
I. INTRODUCTION
The spin degrees of freedom is described by the SU(2)symmetry group, which can take different irreducible rep-resentations, each corresponding to different values of thespin. For an atom in a hyperfine spin
state, its corre-sponding SU(2) representation is 2
+1 dimension. Withthe help of optical traps, spinor condensates with atomsin all these representations have been realized in manydifferent atomic species and states[16]. Extensive experimental and theoretical investigationshave focused mainly on atomic spinor condensates withspin equal to 1, 2, and 3. For the simplest case of spin-1 condensates[711], the mean-field ground states [7,12], and exact full quantum eigenstates[12,13] are intensively explored, also noted is the possibility of topo-logical fractionalized 1/2-vortex excitations in the anti-ferromagnetic phase [14] and the appearance and forma-tion of spin domains in the ferromagnetic phase[15,16]. In addition, theoretical studies[9,17,18] either based on mean-field approximation or including quantum spinfluctuations, and experimental efforts[19,20] have been made to investigate the spin dynamics of the conden-sate. Similar efforts are directed at spin-2 condensates[12,21,22], whose ground states contain one extra phase: the cyclic phase, with an exotic symmetry described bythe non-Abelian tetrahedral group T, potentially of sig-nificant value for demonstrating various topological ex-citations [2325]. Under the single spatial mode approx- imation (SMA), the exact eigenspectra and eigenstatesof a spin-2 condensate are derived[12,22], which shows that the ground state is in general fragmented. The spindynamics are also studied in the presence of a B-field,with the linear and quadratic Zeeman shifts [5,26,27]. For the case of the spin-2 hyperfine manifold of a
87
Rbcondensate[27], its spin dynamics show amplitude reso-nance when the B-field is tuned experimentally just likespin mixing in a spin-1 condensate [17,18]. When the spin increases to 3 [6], the ground state contains manymore phases[28,29], and new possibilities for richer and more colorful physics become available, waiting to be fur-ther explored.Parallel to these studies of spinor condensates, the ef-forts are multi-component quantum gases have also re-ceived equal attention, most notably the case of pseudospin-1/2 condensates[3035] involving two atomic species or components. Since the total spin is conservedunder the density dependent interaction between the twocomponents, even in the presence of evaporative coolingif the interaction is SU(2) symmetric, A. B. Kuklov
et al.
[33] predicted that in the ground states all atoms con-dense into two orthogonal spatial orbitals, resulting ina maximally entangled many atom state. Replacing thetwo orbitals with two different species of atoms, Shi
et al.
[35] found a ground state condensate with an entan-gled order parameter. For two bosonic species of spin-1 atoms, such as
87
Rb and
23
Na atoms in the lowesthyperfine state manifold, the mixture reduces to a bi-nary mixture of spin-1 BECs. In the absence of externalB-field, the ground state phases are essentially known,from the semi-classical phase diagram under the mean-field approximation [36] to the quantum results under theSMA for each of the two species and including quantumspin fluctuations [3739]. Several interesting results have been revealed already. For example, the ground statereduces to a maximally entangled states[37,39] where the mixture becomes fragmented and the number fluctu-ations [38] exhibit drastically different features from theisolated spin-1 condensates, when the inter-species’ anti-ferromagnetic spin exchange interaction is large enoughand when the inter-species singlet pairing interaction isignored.In this work, we continue our study of a binary mixtureof spin-1 condensates, in the presence of a weak externalB-field. First, as in all experimental setups, a nonzeroB-field inevitably exists no matter how small it may be.Second, it is motivated by the possibilities of interesting
 
2physics due to the competitions between the linear andquadratic Zeeman shifts and the ferromagnetic interac-tions, which for the case of isolated spin-1 condensateis shown to induce a spontaneous axisymmetry breakingphase [3,40]. We find that by tuning the inter-species spin exchange interaction and the linear Zeeman shift,and largely ignoring the quadratic Zeeman shifts (be-cause the B-field is weak), there exists an analogous BAphase in a system of binary mixture of spin-1 conden-sates.This article is organized as follows. In section II, weintroduce the model formulation for a binary mixtureof spin-1 condensates in the presence of an external B-field. Sec. III is devoted to the mean field results of thebroken-axisymmetry (BA) phase, where we discuss thespecial case and the general case respectively. In Sec.IV, we elaborate on the Bogoliubov spectra for the vari-ous quantum phases of the mixture, and we point out theinteresting zero energy Goldstone modes responsible forrestoring the broken continuous symmetries: U(1) andSO(2). Also we propose a new scheme for classifying thevarious phases in the ground states using the number of nonzero components for their associated order parame-ters. Finally we conclude in Sec. V. The appendix pro-vides some mathematical details.
II. OUR MODEL
In this section, we first review the basic formulation in-troduced earlier for the inter-species atomic interactions.Between two distinguishable spin-1 atoms (of differentspecies), they can be parameterized by the three differ-ent scattering lengths
a
(12)0
,
1
,
2
which refer to three chan-nels of total spin
tot
= 0
,
1, and 2 respectively. Define
g
(12)0
,
1
,
2
= 4
π
2
a
(12)0
,
1
,
2
with
µ
=
1
2
/
(
1
+
2
) thereduced mass and
l
the mass for each atomic species(
l
= 1
,
2), the corresponding pseudo-potential is given by
12
(
r
1
r
2
) = (
g
(12)0
0
+
g
(12)1
1
+
g
(12)2
2
)
δ
(
r
1
r
2
)
/
2.
0
,
1
,
2
is the corresponding total spin projection operator,and
 
1
·
 
2
=
2
1
2
0
. The inter-species interactionis then expressed as
12
(
r
1
r
2
) =12(
α
+
β
F
1
·
F
2
+
γ 
0
)
δ
(
r
1
r
2
)
,
(1)where
α
= (
g
(12)1
+
g
(12)2
)
/
2,
β
= (
g
(12)1
+
g
(12)2
)
/
2, and
γ 
= (2
g
(12)0
3
g
(12)1
+
g
(12)2
)
/
2. DenotingˆΨ
(
r
) andˆΦ
(
r
) as the two species annihilation field operator at aposition
r
respectively, the Hamiltonian of a homogenoussystem of binary mixture under B-field becomesˆ
=ˆ
1
+ˆ
2
+ˆ
12
,
ˆ
1
=
 
d
r
ˆΨ
m
2
2
1
2
 p
1
m
+
q
1
m
2
ˆΨ
m
+
α
1
2ˆΨ
i
ˆΨ
j
ˆΨ
j
ˆΨ
i
+
β
1
2ˆΨ
i
ˆΨ
k
F
1
ij
·
F
1
kl
ˆΨ
l
ˆΨ
j
,
ˆ
12
=12
 
d
r
α
ˆΨ
i
ˆΦ
j
ˆΦ
j
ˆΨ
i
+
β
ˆΨ
i
ˆΦ
k
F
1
ij
·
F
2
kl
ˆΦ
l
ˆΨ
j
+13
γ 
ˆ
s
ˆ
s
,
(2)where
p
1
and
q
1
are the linear and the quadratic Zee-man shifts, respectively, and summation over repeatedindices are assumed.ˆ
2
has the same expression asˆ
1
except for the substitution of subscript 1 by 2 andˆΨ byˆΦ. ˆ
s
= (ˆΨ
1
ˆΦ
1
ˆΨ
0
ˆΦ
0
+ˆΨ
1
ˆΦ
1
) is the inter-speciessinglet pairing operator.
III. MEAN-FIELD GROUND STATES
This study concerns the limit of weak external B-fields,when the quadratic Zeeman shifts can be neglected, or
q
1
=
q
2
= 0. Without loss of generality we assume
 p
1
 p
2
0. For the mixture of two alkali species, suchas the spin-1
87
Rb and
23
Na condensates, under the as-sumption of interspecies interaction mainly arise fromthe contributions of the two valence electrons[4143], we can approximate
γ 
= 0 [44]. For a uniform sys-tem, it is convenient to expand the field operators interms of plane waves asˆΨ
m
=
1
/
2
k
e
i
k
·
r
ˆ
a
k
,m
andˆΦ
m
=
1
/
2
k
e
i
k
·
r
ˆ
b
k
,m
, where Ω is the system vol-ume, and ˆ
a
k
,m
(ˆ
b
k
,m
) denotes the annihilation operatorof an atom of species one (two) with momentum
k
andmagnetic quantum number
m
. Then the Hamiltonian of Eq. (2) can be rewritten asˆ
1
=
k
,m
(
ε
1
k
 p
1
m
a
k
,m
ˆ
a
k
,m
+
α
1
2Ω
k
: ˆ
ρ
1
,
k
ˆ
ρ
1
,
k
:+
β
1
2Ω
k
:ˆ
1
,
k
·
ˆ
1
,
k
:
,
ˆ
12
=
α
2Ω
k
ˆ
ρ
1
,
k
ˆ
ρ
2
,
k
+
β
2Ω
k
ˆ
1
,
k
·
ˆ
2
,
k
,
(3)where
ε
1
k
=
2
k
2
/
2
1
, ˆ
ρ
1
,
k
=
q
,m
ˆ
a
q
+
k
,m
ˆ
a
q
,m
, andˆ
1
,
k
=
q
,m,n
ˆ
a
q
+
k
,m
F
1
mn
ˆ
a
q
,n
. The symbol : : repre-sents the normal ordering of the operators. Similar toEq. (2),ˆ
2
is given by replacing the subscript 1 by 2,and the operator ˆ
a
byˆ
b
inˆ
1
.The condensate component corresponds to the zeromomentum
k
= 0 state, which is occupied by a macro-scopic number of atoms. The corresponding Hamiltonian
 
3becomesˆ
BEC
=
m
m
(
 p
1
ˆ
a
0
,m
ˆ
a
0
,m
+
p
2
ˆ
b
0
,m
ˆ
b
0
,m
)+
α
1
2Ω: ˆ
ρ
21
,
0
: +
β
1
2Ω:ˆ
21
,
0
: +
α
2
2Ω: ˆ
ρ
22
,
0
:+
β
2
2Ω:ˆ
22
,
0
: +
α
2Ωˆ
ρ
1
,
0
ˆ
ρ
2
,
0
+
β
2Ωˆ
1
,
0
·
ˆ
2
,
0
.
(4)Under the mean-field approximation, the operator ˆ
a
0
,m
(ˆ
b
0
,m
) is replaced by
c
-number
1
ζ 
1
,m
(
2
ζ 
2
,m
),where
1
,
2
are the atom numbers for the species oneand two respectively, and
ζ 
1
= (
ζ 
1
,
1
,ζ 
1
,
0
,ζ 
1
,
1
)
and
ζ 
2
= (
ζ 
2
,
1
,ζ 
2
,
0
,ζ 
2
,
1
)
are normalized spin-1 spinors.As a result, in the mean-field approximation the groundstate spinor wavefunction is found by minimizing themean-field spin-dependent energy given by
s
=
 p
1
1z
+12
β
1
n
1
F
1
2
 p
2
2
1
2z
+12
β
2
n
2
2
1
F
2
2
+12
βn
2
F
1
·
F
2
=
 pf 
1z
xpf 
2z
+12(
β
1
21
+
β
2
22
+
β
1
·
2
)
,
(5)where
n
j
=
j
/
Ω is the condensate density of the
j
-th species and
1
,
2
=
F
1
,
2
,
p
1
=
p
2
2
/
(
1
x
) =
p
,
β
1
=
β
1
n
1
,
β
2
=
β
2
n
2
2
/N 
1
and
β
=
βn
2
. The pro-cedure to find the mean-field ground states is summa-rized in the appendixA,where we discuss the structureof the ground states classified into two classes: with orwithout broken-axisymmetry. According to Ref. [1], astate with a nonzero transverse magnetization is calleda broken-axisymmetry phase. Analogously states pre-serving axisymmetry refer to those with zero transversemagnetization. In the BA phase, both species are foundto be fully polarized. For axisymmetry preserved groundstates, the wave functions take the form
ζ 
j
=
e
j
e
j
 
(1 +
 jz
)
/
20
 
(1
 jz
)
/
2
,
(6)where
χ
j
and
ϕ
j
are arbitrary phase angles, and
j
= 1
,
2.When
1z
= 0 or
2z
= 0, the ground states include aninfinite family of degenerate states with that in Eq. (6).More rigorously, we note that the nematic order for theabove state (6) actually is not axisymmetric[1]. For the BA phase, the ground state wave functions take the form
ζ 
j
=
e
j
e
j
cos
2
θ
j
2
2cos
θ
j
2
sin
θ
j
2
e
j
sin
2
θ
j
2
,
(7)where
χ
j
and
ϕ
j
are arbitrary phase angles, and
ϕ
2
=
ϕ
1
+
π
(mod 2
π
),
j
= 1
,
2.
θ
1
and
θ
2
are determined by
1z
and
2z
respectively as cos
θ
1
=
1z
and cos
θ
2
=
2z
. Theground state phase diagram is characterized into threecases according to the intra-species spin exchange inter-action parameter
β
1
and
β
2
. Without loss of generality,in the following we assume
|
β
1
|
<
|
β
2
|
.
-8      -4      0      4      8      -8-4048      -8-4048      -8      -4      0      4      8      -8-4048      -1.0      -0.5      0.0      0.5      1.0      
PN        BA       BA       BA       NN        
         p       (   |  '      1   |    )   
(a)    FF       FF       FF       PN        '(|'  1      |)    
   
(b)    
         p       (   |  '      1   |    )   
   '(|'  1      |)    (c)    p(|'  1      |)    
      f      1      z          &      f      2      z
   (d)    
FIG. 1: (Color online). The ground state phase diagram of our model system of a binary spin-1 condensate mixture atfixed values of 
β
1
and
β
2
for the special case of 
x
= 1. Theblack dash-dotted lines correspond to
p
= 0, which serve asguides for the eye. Blue (Red) lines denote continuous (dis-continuous) phase boundaries. The first three subplots denotefixed intra-specie spin exchange interaction parameters at (
β
1
,
β
2
)/
|
β
1
|
=: (a) (
1,
2); (b) (1
,
2); and (c) (
1
,
2). The lastone (d) illustrates the dependence of ground state order pa-rameters
1z
(blue solid line) and
2z
(red dashed line) of theBA phase on the linear Zeeman shift
p
at a fixed value of 
β
= 7
|
β
1
|
.
A. the special case of 
x
= 1
In this subsection, we consider the special case of 
x
=1, where the parameter defined as the partical numbermultiplying the linear Zeeman shift, of the two species areequal (
1
 p
1
=
2
 p
2
). The ground states are as shown inthe Fig. (1), where the first three subplots denote fixedintra-specie spin exchange interaction parameters at (
β
1
,
β
2
)/
|
β
1
|
=: (a) (
1,
2); (b) (1
,
2); and (c) (
1
,
2). Thelast one (d) illustrates the dependence of ground stateorder parameters
1z
and
2z
of the BA phase on thelinear Zeeman shift
p
at a fixed value of 
β
= 7
|
β
1
|
.First, we discuss the case when the two spin-1 conden-sates are both ferromagnetic (
β
1
<
0 and
β
2
<
0). Theground state has two phases: the FF phase and the BAphase. The FF phase is a typical axisymmetry preserv-ing phase with
1z
=
2z
= sign(
 p
), which is the sameas that found in[36] with atomic spins in each speciesfully polarized and aligned parallel to each other with
21
=
22
=
1
·
2
= 1. In the BA phase, the two spin vec-tors of each species are remain fully polarized but nowtilted at an angle
θ
1
and
θ
2
with
θ
1
=
θ
2
= arccos(
 p/β
)with respect to the
z
-axis. This is illustrated in the Fig.2.From Eq. (A3), we confirm that in this case the BA phaseexists only when
β
0, which is consistent with numer-ical and analytical results shown in the Fig.1(a). Theboundary between the FF phase and the BA phase canbe derived by comparing the energy of Eq. (5), which

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