3becomesˆ
H
BEC
=
m
−
m
(
p
1
ˆ
a
†
0
,m
ˆ
a
0
,m
+
p
2
ˆ
b
†
0
,m
ˆ
b
0
,m
)+
α
1
2Ω: ˆ
ρ
21
,
0
: +
β
1
2Ω:ˆ
f
21
,
0
: +
α
2
2Ω: ˆ
ρ
22
,
0
:+
β
2
2Ω:ˆ
f
22
,
0
: +
α
2Ωˆ
ρ
1
,
0
ˆ
ρ
2
,
0
+
β
2Ωˆ
f
1
,
0
·
ˆ
f
2
,
0
.
(4)Under the meanﬁeld approximation, the operator ˆ
a
0
,m
(ˆ
b
0
,m
) is replaced by
c
number
√
N
1
ζ
1
,m
(
√
N
2
ζ
2
,m
),where
N
1
,
N
2
are the atom numbers for the species oneand two respectively, and
ζ
1
= (
ζ
1
,
1
,ζ
1
,
0
,ζ
1
,
−
1
)
T
and
ζ
2
= (
ζ
2
,
1
,ζ
2
,
0
,ζ
2
,
−
1
)
T
are normalized spin1 spinors.As a result, in the meanﬁeld approximation the groundstate spinor wavefunction is found by minimizing themeanﬁeld spindependent energy given by
E
s
=
−
p
1
F
1z
+12
β
1
n
1
F
1
2
−
p
2
N
2
N
1
F
2z
+12
β
2
n
2
N
2
N
1
F
2
2
+12
βn
2
F
1
·
F
2
=
−
pf
1z
−
xpf
2z
+12(
β
′
1
f
21
+
β
′
2
f
22
+
β
′
f
1
·
f
2
)
,
(5)where
n
j
=
N
j
/
Ω is the condensate density of the
j
th species and
f
1
,
2
=
F
1
,
2
,
p
1
=
p
2
N
2
/
(
N
1
x
) =
p
,
β
′
1
=
β
1
n
1
,
β
′
2
=
β
2
n
2
N
2
/N
1
and
β
′
=
βn
2
. The procedure to ﬁnd the meanﬁeld ground states is summarized in the appendixA,where we discuss the structureof the ground states classiﬁed into two classes: with orwithout brokenaxisymmetry. According to Ref. [1], astate with a nonzero transverse magnetization is calleda brokenaxisymmetry phase. Analogously states preserving axisymmetry refer to those with zero transversemagnetization. In the BA phase, both species are foundto be fully polarized. For axisymmetry preserved groundstates, the wave functions take the form
ζ
j
=
e
iχ
j
e
iϕ
j
(1 +
f
jz
)
/
20
(1
−
f
jz
)
/
2
,
(6)where
χ
j
and
ϕ
j
are arbitrary phase angles, and
j
= 1
,
2.When
f
1z
= 0 or
f
2z
= 0, the ground states include aninﬁnite family of degenerate states with that in Eq. (6).More rigorously, we note that the nematic order for theabove state (6) actually is not axisymmetric[1]. For the
BA phase, the ground state wave functions take the form
ζ
j
=
e
iχ
j
e
−
iϕ
j
cos
2
θ
j
2
√
2cos
θ
j
2
sin
θ
j
2
e
iϕ
j
sin
2
θ
j
2
,
(7)where
χ
j
and
ϕ
j
are arbitrary phase angles, and
ϕ
2
=
ϕ
1
+
π
(mod 2
π
),
j
= 1
,
2.
θ
1
and
θ
2
are determined by
f
1z
and
f
2z
respectively as cos
θ
1
=
f
1z
and cos
θ
2
=
f
2z
. Theground state phase diagram is characterized into threecases according to the intraspecies spin exchange interaction parameter
β
′
1
and
β
′
2
. Without loss of generality,in the following we assume

β
′
1

<

β
′
2

.
8 4 0 4 8 84048 84048 8 4 0 4 8 84048 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0
PN BA BA BA NN
p (  ' 1  )
(a) FF FF FF PN '(' 1 )
(b)
p (  ' 1  )
'(' 1 ) (c) p(' 1 )
f 1 z & f 2 z
(d)
FIG. 1: (Color online). The ground state phase diagram of our model system of a binary spin1 condensate mixture atﬁxed values of
β
′
1
and
β
′
2
for the special case of
x
= 1. Theblack dashdotted lines correspond to
p
= 0, which serve asguides for the eye. Blue (Red) lines denote continuous (discontinuous) phase boundaries. The ﬁrst three subplots denoteﬁxed intraspecie spin exchange interaction parameters at (
β
′
1
,
β
′
2
)/

β
′
1

=: (a) (
−
1,
−
2); (b) (1
,
2); and (c) (
−
1
,
2). The lastone (d) illustrates the dependence of ground state order parameters
f
1z
(blue solid line) and
f
2z
(red dashed line) of theBA phase on the linear Zeeman shift
p
at a ﬁxed value of
β
′
= 7

β
′
1

.
A. the special case of
x
= 1
In this subsection, we consider the special case of
x
=1, where the parameter deﬁned as the partical numbermultiplying the linear Zeeman shift, of the two species areequal (
N
1
p
1
=
N
2
p
2
). The ground states are as shown inthe Fig. (1), where the ﬁrst three subplots denote ﬁxedintraspecie spin exchange interaction parameters at (
β
′
1
,
β
′
2
)/

β
′
1

=: (a) (
−
1,
−
2); (b) (1
,
2); and (c) (
−
1
,
2). Thelast one (d) illustrates the dependence of ground stateorder parameters
f
1z
and
f
2z
of the BA phase on thelinear Zeeman shift
p
at a ﬁxed value of
β
′
= 7

β
′
1

.First, we discuss the case when the two spin1 condensates are both ferromagnetic (
β
′
1
<
0 and
β
′
2
<
0). Theground state has two phases: the FF phase and the BAphase. The FF phase is a typical axisymmetry preserving phase with
f
1z
=
f
2z
= sign(
p
), which is the sameas that found in[36] with atomic spins in each speciesfully polarized and aligned parallel to each other with
f
21
=
f
22
=
f
1
·
f
2
= 1. In the BA phase, the two spin vectors of each species are remain fully polarized but nowtilted at an angle
θ
1
and
θ
2
with
θ
1
=
θ
2
= arccos(
p/β
′
)with respect to the
z
axis. This is illustrated in the Fig.2.From Eq. (A3), we conﬁrm that in this case the BA phaseexists only when
β
′
≥
0, which is consistent with numerical and analytical results shown in the Fig.1(a). Theboundary between the FF phase and the BA phase canbe derived by comparing the energy of Eq. (5), which