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Thawatchai Mayteevarunyoo et al- Matter-wave vortices and solitons in anisotropic optical lattices

Thawatchai Mayteevarunyoo et al- Matter-wave vortices and solitons in anisotropic optical lattices

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Physica D 238 (2009) 1439–1448
Contents lists available atScienceDirect
Physica D
 journal homepage:www.elsevier.com/locate/physd
Matter-wave vortices and solitons in anisotropic optical lattices
Thawatchai Mayteevarunyoo
a,b
, Boris A. Malomed
a,
, Bakhtiyor B. Baizakov
c,d
, Mario Salerno
d
a
Department of Physical Electronics, School of Electric Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
b
Department of Telecommunication Engineering, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok 10530, Thailand
c
Physical-Technical Institute of the Uzbek Academy of Sciences, 2-b G. Mavlyanov Street, 700084, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
d
Dipartimento di Fisica ‘‘E.R. Caianiello’’ and Consorzio Nazionale, Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Università di Salerno, I-84081 Baronissi (SA), Italy
a r t i c l e i n f o
 Article history:
Available online 19 August 2008
PACS:
03.75.Lm05.45.Yv42.70.Qs
Keywords:
Bose–Einstein condensatePhotonic crystalCollapseSquare vortexRhombus vortexQuadrupoleGap solitonDipole soliton
a b s t r a c t
Using numerical methods, we construct families of vortical, quadrupole, and fundamental solitons ina two-dimensional (2D) nonlinear-Schrödinger/Gross–Pitaevskii equation which models Bose–Einsteincondensates (BECs) or photonic crystals. The equation includes the attractive or repulsive cubicnonlinearityand ananisotropicperiodicpotential.Twotypesof anisotropyareconsidered,accounted forbythedifferenceinthestrengthsofthe1Dsublattices,orbyadifferenceintheirperiods.Thelimitcaseof the quasi-1D optical lattice (OL), when one sublattice is missing, is included too. By means of systematicsimulations,weidentifystabilitylimitsfortwospeciesofvortexsolitonsandquadrupoles,oftherhombusandsquaretypes.Intheattractionmodel,rhombicvorticesandquadrupolesremainstableuptothelimitcaseofthequasi-1Dlattice.Inthesamemodel,finitestabilitylimitsarefoundforvorticesandquadrupolesof the square type, in terms of the anisotropy parameter. In the repulsion model, rhombic vortices andquadrupoles are stable in large parts of the first finite bandgap (FBG). Another species of partly stableanisotropic states is found in the second FBG,
subfundamental dipoles
, each squeezed into a single cell of the OL. Square-shaped quadrupoles are completely unstable in the repulsion model, while vortices of thesame type are stable only in weakly anisotropic OL potentials.
©
2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
Asubjectofgreatcurrentinterestintheoreticalandexperimen-tal studies of the dynamical patterns formation in Bose–Einsteincondensates (BECs) and photonic crystals is the existence and sta-bility of multidimensional solitons and localized vortices in two-and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) settings. While solitons havebeencreatedinwell-knownexperimentsinBECwithattractivein-teractions between atoms, loaded in effectively 1D (cigar-shaped)traps [1,2], a basic problem impeding straightforward creation of  multidimensional solitonsistheinstability against collapsedrivenby the cubic self-attractive nonlinearity [3]. As concerns ring-shaped solitons with intrinsic vorticity, they are additionally sub- jecttothesymmetry-breakingazimuthalinstability,whichisevenstronger than the instability to the collapse [4].Itwasproposed[5–8]thatageneralmethodforthestabilizationof multidimensional solitons and localized vortices in BEC maybe based on the use of optical lattices (OLs), i.e., periodicpotentials which are induced by the interference betweencounterpropagating laser beams illuminating the condensate.
Corresponding author.
E-mail address:
malomed@eng.tau.ac.il(B.A. Malomed).
Stable 2D and 3D solitons can be supported by
full
OLs (withdimension
D
equal to that of the space in which the lattice wascreated), and also by
low-dimensional
OLs, with dimension
D
1, i.e., quasi-1D and quasi-2D lattices in the 2D and 3D space,respectively [7,10]. In the latter case, the solitons naturally feature a strongly anisotropic shape.AlthoughtheOLbreakstherotationalinvariance,itcansupportand stabilize not only fundamental solitons, but also vorticalones [5,6,8,9], including localized vortices of higher orders, with ‘‘spin’’ (the topological charge, alias vorticity)
S
1 [11]. Thesimplest ‘‘crater-shaped’’ vortex soliton, in the form of a singledensity peak with an inner hole induced by the vorticity, is alwaysunstable [12,13] (the instability splits it into several pulses, one of  which survives, demonstrating a random walk across the OL [13]).Stablevorticeswith
S
=
1arebuiltassetsoffour[5,6]oreight[12, 23] peaks, with the phase difference, respectively,
φ
=
π/
2 or
π/
4 between adjacent ones, which corresponds to the total phasecirculation of 2
π
. There are two different species of the simpleststable vortex solitons, which are composed of four peaks: denselypacked
squares
, with the center coinciding with a local maximumof the OL potential [6,13], and ‘‘porous’
rhombuses
, featuringa nearly empty lattice cell at the center [5,12,13] (two similar speciesofvortexsolitonsarealsoknownindiscretemodels,whererhombuses are sometimes called
crosses
[14]). It was recently
0167-2789/$ – see front matter
©
2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.physd.2008.07.024
 
Author's personal copy
1440
T. Mayteevarunyoo et al. / Physica D 238 (2009) 1439–1448
demonstrated [9] that the squares and rhombuses form separatefamilies, each featuring a pair of branches connected at a turningpoint. The modes belonging to the different branches differ bythe number of peaks (for instance, four and eight peaks that mayconstitute a rhombic vortex, as mentioned above).Stable vortices of higher orders, up to
S
=
6, were constructedas ring-shaped sets consisting of up to
=
12 peaks, withrespective phase differences
φ
=
2
π
S
/
[11]. The localizedvortices formally corresponding to
S
=
2, which are composedof 4 peaks, have
φ
=
π
, i.e., these are actually real solutionsin the form of 
quadrupoles
. Also predicted were stable topologicalpatterns in the form of 
supervortices
, which are ring chains builtof 12 (or more) compact crater-shaped vortices carrying localspins
s
=
1, with global vorticity
S
= ±
1 imprinted ontothe entire ring [11]. The supervortices may be stable, even if individual‘‘crater’’peaks,ofwhichtheyarecomposed,areunstablein isolation, as mentioned above.The quasi-2D lattice in the 3D space can also support stable3D solitons with embedded vorticity [15]. On the other hand, theexistence and stability of vortices in the 2D model with the quasi-1D lattice remains an open problem.Solitons of a different type, namely,
gap solitons
(GSs), canbe supported by full OL potentials of any dimension in BECwith repulsive interactions between atoms. The GSs result fromthe balance between the repulsive nonlinearity and the negativeeffective mass in parts of the linear bandgap spectrum generatedby the OL [16,17]. They are stable localized objects [18], even if  they cannot realize the ground state of the condensate trapped inthe OL. The creation of GSs containing
250 atoms of 
87
Rb wasreported in the effectively 1D setting [19] (see also review [20]). Multidimensional GSs [21], including gap-type vortices [12,22, 23], and ‘‘semi-gap’’ solitons (which are organized as GSs in onedirection, and regular solitons in the other [24]) were predictedtoo. As concerns gap-soliton vortices, they may feature both thesquare [22] and rhombic [12,22,23] shapes. In both 1D and 2D settings,stableGSsmaybesupportednotonlybyperiodicOLs,butalso by quasi-periodic lattices [25].Thus far, the studies of 2D and 3D solitons supported byOLs were confined to two limit cases,
viz
., the full (isotropic)lattices, and low-dimensional ones, with one sublattice missing.In experiments, it is quite easy to create a more general setting,with an
anisotropic
OL, composed of 1D sublattices with differentstrengths and/or different periods. To the best of our knowledge,fundamental solitons and vortices in anisotropic lattices werepreviously studied only in the discrete model [14], that may beconsidered as a model for the BEC trapped in a very deep OL[17,26]. Similar settings are available for the experiment in nonlinearoptics, where photonic lattices can be induced in photorefractivecrystals illuminated by pump laser beams in the ordinarypolarization (in which the medium is nearly linear), while solitonsare created by probe beams launched in the extraordinarypolarization [27]. In addition to fundamental 2D solitons [28], localized vortices [29], necklace-shaped [30] and circular [31] solitons have been created by means of this technique. Inparticular, 2D anisotropic solitons supported by an isotropicsquare-shaped photo-induced lattice were reported in Ref. [34].Asymmetrically shaped vortex solitons were predicted in thatmedium too [35].Another realization of 2D solitons [32] and vortices [33] in nonlinear optics is possible in photonic-crystal fibers. Unlike thesaturable nonlinearity characteristic to photorefractive crystals,they feature the same cubic (Kerr) nonlinearity as BEC.The anisotropic-lattice settings for solitons, vortices andquadrupoles, which are the subject of the present work, suggestto consider several issues of evident interest. One of them isfinding stability borders for 2D vortex and quadrupole solitonsin the model with the attractive cubic nonlinearity. Anotherstraightforward question is to identify existence and stabilitylimits for 2D GSs in the model with the self-repulsion, where,obviously, solitons cannot exist in the quasi-1D limit, when oneof 1D sublattices is switched off. The first noteworthy findingreported below is that both the vortices (with
S
=
1) andquadrupoles of the rhombus type exist and
remain stable
up tothe limit of the quasi-1D lattice (in the attraction model). For thesquare-shaped vortices and quadrupoles, we find a critical degreeoftheanisotropyofthe2Dlattice,uptowhichtheyremainstableunliketheirrhombiccounterparts,theyareunstableinthelimitof thequasi-1Dlattice.Generally,thestabilityregionforquadrupolesin the attraction model is essentially broader than for vortices. Inthe repulsion model, we find the existence and stability limits forthe fundamental (
S
=
0), vortical
(
S
=
1
)
and quadrupole GSs. Inthis case too, the rhombuses are much more stable than squares,but quadrupoles are found to be
less stable
than vortices, on thecontrary to the attraction model.These results predict universal properties of fundamental,vortical, and quadrupole 2D solitons in nonlinear periodicmedia,thatcanberealizedinBEC,photoniccrystalsandphotonic-crystal fibers, and other physical media. Experimental verificationofthepredictionsisquitefeasiblebothinBECandphotoniclatticesin photorefractive crystals.The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In Section2,we formulate the model and demonstrate spectra generated bythe OLs in its linear version. Systematic findings for the 2Dvortices and quadrupoles of the rhombus and square type arereported in Sections3and4, for the models with attraction and repulsion, respectively. While the results are obtained by meansof systematic simulations, Section3includes a brief discussionwhich aims to explain some findings by means of an analyticalapproximation. The paper is concluded by Section5in whichthe main results are summarized, and examples of stable three-dimensional GSs supported by the respective anisotropic OL areadditionally displayed.
2. The model: nonlinear equations and linear spectra
2.1. The Gross–Pitaevskii equation
The starting point is the 3D Gross–Pitaevskii equation for themean-field wave function,
Ψ 
(
 X 
,
,
 Z 
,
)
, where the coordinatesandtimedenotedbycapitallettersaremeasuredinphysicalunits:i
¯
h
Ψ 
= −¯
h
2
2
m
2
Ψ 
 X 
2
+
2
Ψ 
2
+
2
Ψ 
 Z 
2
+
4
π
¯
h
2
a
s
m
|
Ψ 
|
2
Ψ 
+
(
 X 
,
,
 Z 
)
Ψ 
.
(1)Here
m
and
a
s
are the atomic mass and scattering length of atomiccollisions, and
is the external potential. For the
anisotropic
3Dlattice with strength
0
and period
d
, the potential is
=
0
η
cos
2
π
 X d
+
cos
2
π
d
+
cos
2
π
 Z d

,
(2)where anisotropy factor
η
takes values 0
< η
1, with theisotropic and quasi-2D limits corresponding, respectively, to
η
=
1 and
η
=
0. If the 1D components of the OL are induced bythe superposition of two counterpropagating laser beams withwavelength
λ
and misalignment angle 2
θ
, the corresponding OLperiod is
d
=
λ/(
2cos
θ)
. Besides using different intensities of lightindifferentpairsofbeams,whichisaccountedforby
η <
1inEq.(2),anothersourceoftheanisotropymaybetheuseofdifferent
 
Author's personal copy
T. Mayteevarunyoo et al. / Physica D 238 (2009) 1439–1448
1441
Fig. 1.
(a) The edge of the SIG (semi-infinite gap), as found from Eq.(8)at different values of anisotropy coefficient
η
and fixed
κ
=
1. (b) The same for different values of 
κ
and fixed
η
=
1. The SIG in the spectrum of linearized equations(5)and(6)is located to the left of the edge point.
angles
θ
forthebeampairsinducing
 X 
,
,and
 Z 
-componentsofthelattice potential, i.e., different periods of these components.In the 3D case, one can rescale the coordinates, time, potential,and wave function as follows:
(
 X 
,
,
 Z 
)
(
d
/π)(
 x
,
 y
,
 z
)
,
2
md
2
2
¯
h
,
0
π
2
¯
h
2
/
2
md
2
0
,
Ψ 
(
 X 
,
,
 Z 
,
)
(
2
d
)
1
√ 
π/
2
|
a
s
|
u
(
 x
,
 y
,
 z
,
)
,whichcastsEq.(1)inthenormalizedform,i
u
= −
u
 xx
+
u
 yy
+
u
 zz
+
σ 
|
u
|
2
u
0
[
η
cos
(
2
 x
)
+
cos
(
2
 y
)
+
cos
(
2
 z
)
]
,
(3)where
σ 
sgn
(
a
s
)
is
1 and
+
1 for the model of with the self-attraction and self-repulsion, respectively.
2.2. The two-dimensional model: the formulation and linear spectra
The setting which can be reduced to the 2D model is basedon Eq.(1)with a combination of the strong confinement in onedirection and anisotropic OL in the perpendicular plane,
=
12
m
ω
2
 z
 Z 
2
0
cos
2
π
 X d
+
η
cos
2
π
d

,
(4)where the anisotropy parameter again takes values 0
<η
1. The reduction to the 2D equation is performed,as usual, by means of substitution [36]
Ψ 
(
 X 
,
,
 Z 
,
)
=
exp
(
i
/
2
 z
 Z 
2
/
2
a
2
 z

(
 X 
,
,
)
in Eq.(1), where thetransverse-confinementlengthis
a
 z
=√ ¯
h
/
m
ω
 z
.Further,rescaling
(
 X 
,
)
(
d
/π)(
 x
,
 y
)
,
md
2
2
¯
h
,
0
π
2
¯
h
2
/
md
2
0
,
Ψ 
d
1
π/
2
√ 
2
|
a
s
|
u
(
 x
,
 y
,
)
caststheresulting2Dequationinthe normalized form,i
u
= −
(
1
/
2
)
u
 xx
+
u
 yy
+
σ 
|
u
|
2
u
0
[cos
(
2
 x
)
+
η
cos
(
2
 y
)
]
u
,
(5)with
σ 
=
1 having the same meaning as in Eq.(3).As said above, the anisotropy of the OL may also be inducedby different periods of its quasi-1D components of the OL, whichcorresponds to the following modification of the 2D equation:i
u
= −
(
1
/
2
)
u
 xx
+
u
 yy
+
σ 
|
u
|
2
u
0
[cos
(
2
 x
)
+
cos
(
2
κ
 y
)
]
u
,
(6)where the ratio of the two periods is defined to be
κ
1. Thesecond term in this potential becomes negligible for
κ
1, asthe strength of the interaction of a short-period potential with asolitonofafinitewidthisexponentiallysmall[5,7].Thenumberof  atoms in the condensate is given by
 
|
Ψ 
(
 X 
,
,
 Z 
)
|
2
d
 X 
d
d
 Z 
2
√ 
2
π
1
(
a
 z
/
|
a
s
|
)
, where
=
 
|
u
(
 x
,
 y
)
|
2
d
 x
d
 y
(7)is the 2D norm of the rescaled wave function.Stationary solutions to Eq.(5)or(6)with chemical potential
µ
arelookedforintheordinaryform,
u
(
 x
,
 y
,
)
=
exp
(
i
µ
)
u
(
 x
,
 y
)
,where function
u
(
 x
,
 y
)
satisfies equation
µ
u
+
(
1
/
2
)
u
 xx
+
u
 yy
+
0
[cos
(
2
 x
)
+
η
cos
(
2
κ
 y
)
]
u
σ 
|
u
|
2
u
=
0 (8)(we will consider the two types of the anisotropy separately,i.e., either
η <
1
,κ
=
1 or
η
=
1
,κ >
1). Relevant solutionsto Eq.(8)are real for fundamental solitons and quadrupoles, andcomplex for vortices.In the attraction model, we will be looking for solitons with
µ
belonging (as usual) to the semi-infinite gap (SIG) in thelinear spectrum generated by Eq.(8), while in the model withthe repulsive nonlinearity solutions will be sought for in finitebandgaps (FBGs). The bandgap spectrum of the isotropic versionofEq.(8)(with
η
=
1)iswellknown(see,e.g.,Ref.[20]),andintheoppositelimitofthequasi-1DOLitreducessimplytotheSIGoftherespective Mathieu equation,
µ
u
+
(
1
/
2
)
u

+
0
cos
(
2
 x
)
u
=
0,and does not include any FBG.The spectrum of the anisotropic OL should be calculated anewfor 0
< η <
1, with
κ
=
1, as well as for
κ >
1 and
η
=
1.We have performed this analysis by means of standard numericalmethods. The so found border of the SIG is shown, as a function of OL strength
0
and anisotropy parameters
η
and
κ
, inFig. 1, andthe intervals of 
µ
occupied by the first FBG are shown inFig. 2.
3. Stability limits for vortex and quadrupole solitons in themodel with attraction
3.1. General approach
As said above, in the model combining the self-attractivenonlinearity and anisotropic lattice potential, the identification of stabilitylimitsforbasictopologicallystructuredstates,i.e.,vorticesand quadrupoles, is an issue of major interest, while it was knownbeforethatfundamentalsolitonsarestableinthe2Dandquasi-1D

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