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The Alternating Gradient Force Magnetometer

The Alternating Gradient Force Magnetometer

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Published by Mehdi Naderi
Chapter 2 The Alternating Gradient Force Magnetometer
As noted in section 1.2.3, the AGFM is a force instrument, comprising of 3 component parts. Firstly, the instrument must be capable of applying a known magnetic field to the sample. Methods of generating fields of various strengths have been well covered in the literature [1, 2]. Secondly, the instrument must have a controllable source of alternating field gradient. This has conventionally been achieved with coils of appropriate geometry, car
Chapter 2 The Alternating Gradient Force Magnetometer
As noted in section 1.2.3, the AGFM is a force instrument, comprising of 3 component parts. Firstly, the instrument must be capable of applying a known magnetic field to the sample. Methods of generating fields of various strengths have been well covered in the literature [1, 2]. Secondly, the instrument must have a controllable source of alternating field gradient. This has conventionally been achieved with coils of appropriate geometry, car

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Published by: Mehdi Naderi on Feb 14, 2012
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Chapter 2The Alternating Gradient Force Magnetometer
As noted in section 1.2.3, the AGFM is a force instrument, comprising of 3component parts. Firstly, the instrument must be capable of applying a knownmagnetic field to the sample. Methods of generating fields of various strengthshave been well covered in the literature
[1, 2]
. Secondly, the instrument musthave a controllable source of alternating field gradient. This has conventionally been achieved with coils of appropriate geometry, carrying an alternatingcurrent, and is described in more detail in section 2.2.1. Finally, the resultingoscillatory force on the sample has to be detected, usually by attaching thesample to a mechanically compliant system and measuring the displacement.Many of the previously reported systems have operated at a mechanicalresonance, thereby greatly enhancing the displacement. This is covered in moredetail in sections 2.2.2, and 2.2.3.
2.1 Review of AGFM literature
The physical forms of instruments that could be called AGFM’s are diverse, asthey have been used to study a range of samples under different conditions, anddifferent geometries. A list of the instruments discussed in this section can befound in Table 2.1, along with details of the detection systems used, some design parameters, and the resolutions obtained. The first demonstration of resonantoperation of a force magnetometer was by Zijlstra
[3]
in 1970. He called hisinstrument a vibrating reed magnetometer; it was only later that AGFM becamethe preferred name. Zijlstra designed his instrument in order to study thehysteresis curves of microscopic (a few
µ
m across) single domain particles.Using a fine (38
µ
m x 20 mm) gold wire as a resonant element, a resolution of 10
-11
J T
-1
was reported. Zijlstra’s experimental set-up was configured so that thealternating gradient field was oriented vertically, in the same direction as theapplied DC field. The resonant element was mounted perpendicular to the field(i.e. horizontally). The displacement of the reed was measured visually, with theaid of a calibrated microscope, and a stroboscopic lamp to ‘freeze’ the motion of the fibre at its maximum deflection. The signal used to drive the stroboscope27
 
lamp was derived from the same source (an audio oscillator) as that used to drivethe gradient coils, after passing through a phase shifting network.
   A  u   t   h  o  r   Y  e  a  r   S  a  m  p   l  e   S   i  z  e   R  e  s  o   l  u   t   i  o  n   [   J   T
  -   1
   ]   D  e   t  e  c   t   i  o  n   M  e   t   h  o   d   P  r  o   b  e   M  a   t  e  r   i  a   l   P  r  o   b  e   d   i  m  e  n  s   i  o  n  s   Q   f  a  c   t  o  r   G  r  a   d   i  e  n   t   f   i  e   l   d   [   T  m
  -   1
   ]   R  e  s  o  n  a  n   t   f  r  e  q  u  e  n  c  y   [   H  z   ]
Zijlstra
[3]
 1970~10
µ
m10
-11
StroboscopeFine goldwire38
µ
m x 20 mm100 5 ~170Reeves
[4]
 1972severalgrams2 x 10
-10
 Piezoelectricrecord player cartridgeSilicatubing (nonresonant)3.5 mm x 350 mm 10-100 0.1167(operatedat ~70)Roos
et al.,
 
[5]
 1980~10
µ
m10
-13
 Piezoelectric biomorphFine goldwire + glassfibre18
µ
m x 10 mm,150
µ
m x 70 mm<70,550 invacuum16.7 62, and 20Schippan
et al.,
[6]
 1982~10
µ
m10
-13
 Piezoelectric biomorphHollowquartz fibre150
µ
m OD,100
µ
m ID x 30 mm<70 16.7151, 953(harmonic)Flanders
[7]
 1988 ~0.5 mm 10
-11
 Piezoelectric biomorphVariousVarious,10 – 25 mm25 - 250 0.4 10 100Richter 
et al.,
 
[8]
 1988~1
µ
m10
-14
 Piezoelectric biomorphCompoundhollowquartz fibre100
µ
m OD,20
µ
m ID x 9.8 mm,780
µ
m OD,350
µ
m ID x 35 mm310 46.5 852Frey
et al.,
 
[9]
 1988 100 mm
3
10
-10
 Piezoelectric biomorphDoublequartz fibre2.5 40 80Flanders
[10]
 1990 135 mg 10
-11
 Piezoelectric biomorphQuartz fibre(nonresonant)70 – 300
µ
m x150 mm20 - 100 0.4 200 550Gibson
et al.,
 
[11]
 1991~10
µ
m1.4 x 10
-14
 OpticalInterferometryMagneticforcemicroscopetip (Si
3
 N
4
)- 43 50 24500O'Grady
et al.,
 
[12]
 1993 100 mg 2 x 10
-11
 Piezoelectric biomorph- 0.4 500Wallace
et al.,
 
[13]
 1995 0.5 mm 10
-8
 TunnellingcurrentBrass strip - 30 0.001 217Zimmer-mann
et al.,
 
[14]
 1996~1
µ
m10
-14
 Opticaldeflection(PSD)Optic Fibre125
µ
m400 3.2 ~1000Asti
et al.,
 
[15, 16]
 1996 ~1 mm 5 x 10
-10
 Piezoelectricrecord player cartridgeTensionedtungstenwire300 mm x 40
µ
m1000 - 150Hill
et al.,
 
[17]
 1996Thinfilms4 mm x4 mm3.4 x 10
-10
 Opticaldeflection(PSD)Tungstenwire20 mm x 250
µ
m700 0.2 250Ashcroft 2001 various 5 x 10
-11
 Piezoelectric biomorphCompoundquartz fibre120 mm x 650
µ
m50 - 300 15 40 - 95
Table 2.1. Parameters of previous instruments reported in the literature, and the present work.
Major deveopments in the design of the AGFM were made by Flanders whochanged to a different coil configuration
[10]
, employing an alternating field witha gradient perpendicular to the field vector. This is shown in Figure 2.1, andallowed the use of a non-resonant extension, similar to that used earlier byReeves
[4]
. This was especially advantageous, as it allowed the resonant element28
 
and piezoelectric biomorph to remain at room temperature, while the temperatureof the sample was varied in the range 77 to 900 K. This largely negated the needfor a nulling coil (impractical at 900 K), or excessive frequency tracking duringexperiments, as the resonant properties were found to be nearly stable whenusing a long extension (100 – 150 mm), that had been suitably heat-shielded.Quartz fibres and capillary tubes were used as extensions, with diameters suitedto the sample mass and sensitivity required, in the range 70
µ
m to 300
µ
m. The biomorphs used were the only resonant element present, and were of the order of 20 mm long and 0.6 mm thick.
Figure 2.1. The instrument used by Flanders, configured for vertical force mode. (Figure 1 fromFlanders [10])
Temperature was varied in a similar manner to that used in previous work 
[7]
,with higher temperatures being produced by a furnace of similar size to thecooling tube. Temperatures were measured using a thermocouple mounted just below the sample. The resonant frequency of the system was found to dependstrongly on sample mass, decreasing from approximately 500 Hz unloaded, toapproximately 200 Hz for a sample of 135 mg, and weakly dependent ontemperature when using thin fibres. There was no measurable change in the
Q
 factor with changes in sample temperature. Palladium foil was used to calibratethe system, and to check the resolution obtainable (10
-11
J T
-1
). Problems wereencountered when measuring superconducting samples, due to unwanted fieldgradient components in directions perpendicular to the one required. Theseunwanted components were a necessary consequence of the coil design29

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